List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to the United States

List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to the United States

The British Ambassador to the United States is in charge of the United Kingdom's diplomatic mission to the United States. The official title is Her Majesty's Ambassador to the United States of America.

The ambassador's residence is on Massachusetts Avenue in Washington, D.C. It was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and built in 1928.

Duties

The position of Ambassador to the United States is considered to be one of the most important jobs in the United Kingdom's Diplomatic Service, along with those of Permanent Representative to the European Union and Permanent Under-Secretary of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

The ambassador's main duty is to present British policies to the American government and people, and to report American policies and views to the Government of the United Kingdom. He serves as the primary channel of communication between the two nations, and plays an important role in treaty negotiations.

The ambassador is the head of the United Kingdom's consular service in the USA. As well as directing diplomatic activity in support of trade, he is ultimately responsible for visa services and for the provision of consular support to British citizens in America. He also over-sees cultural relations between the two countries.

History

The first British envoy to the United States, George Hammond, was appointed on 5 July 1791. He held the title of Minister in Washington or Minister to the United States of America.

In 1809, David Montague Erskine and President James Madison negotiated a compromise to Anglo-American disputes over shipping in the Atlantic, which might have averted the War of 1812. However, the deal was rejected by King George III and the British Government recalled Erskine.

By the 1850s, the envoy's title was Her Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States of America, and the United Kingdom had consulates in several American cities. Under the direction of Sir John Crampton in 1854 and 1855, British consuls attempted to enlist American volunteers to fight in the Crimean War. The American government strenuously objected, and President Franklin Pierce asked for Crampton to be recalled. The United Kingdom refused and, in May 1856, the American government dismissed Crampton, along with the United Kingdom's consuls in New York, Philadelphia and Cincinnati. After much negotiation, the United Kingdom was allowed to re-establish its Legation in Washington the following year, and Lord Napier became the new minister.

In 1893, the British diplomatic mission in Washington was raised from a Legation to an Embassy, and Sir Julian Pauncefote, Minister since 1889, was appointed as the United Kingdom's first ambassador to the United States, with the title Her Britannic Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the United States.

The current Ambassador, Sir Nigel Sheinwald, was appointed on October, 2007.

Heads of Missions

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary (1791-1893)

*1791–1795: George Hammond
*1796–1800: Robert Liston
*1803–1806: Anthony Merry [LondonGazette |issue=15553 |date=25 January 1803 |startpage=114 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1807–1809: Hon. David Erskine
*1809–1811: Francis Jackson [LondonGazette |issue=16260 |date=23 May 1809 |startpage=736 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1811–1812: Augustus Foster
*1812–1815: "No representation due to the War of 1812"
*1815–1820: Hon. Charles Bagot [LondonGazette |issue=17020 |date=6 June 1815 |startpage=1076 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1820–1824: Stratford Canning [LondonGazette |issue=17617 |date=22 July 1820 |startpage=1430 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1825–1835: Charles Vaughan [LondonGazette |issue=18121 |date=26 March 1825 |startpage=513 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1835–1843: Henry Fox [LondonGazette |issue=19310 |date=25 September 1835 |startpage=1791 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1843–1847: Richard Pakenham [LondonGazette |issue=20279 |date=14 November 1843 |startpage=3705 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1849–1852: Sir Henry Bulwer [LondonGazette |issue=20972 |date=27 April 1849 |startpage=1378 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1852–1856: John Crampton [LondonGazette |issue=21284 |date=23 January 1852 |startpage=183 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1857–1858: Francis Napier, 10th Lord Napier [LondonGazette |issue=21961 |date=23 January 1857 |startpage=239 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1858–1865: Richard Lyons, 2nd Baron Lyons [LondonGazette |issue=22209 |date=14 December 1858 |startpage=5415 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1865–1867: Sir Frederick Bruce [LondonGazette |issue=22945 |date=3 March 1865 |startpage=1324 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1867–1881: Sir Edward Thornton [LondonGazette |issue=23330 |date=6 December 1867 |startpage=6704 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1881–1888: Hon. Lionel Sackville-West [LondonGazette |issue=24994 |date=8 July 1881 |startpage=8404 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1889–"1893": Sir Julian Pauncefote [LondonGazette |issue=25917 |date=2 April 1889 |startpage=1863 |accessdate=2008-06-21]

Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary (from 1893)

*"1893"–1902: Sir Julian Pauncefote, Lord Pauncefote from 1899
*1902–1903: Sir Michael Herbert [LondonGazette |issue=27471 |date=5 September 1902 |startpage=5751 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1903–1906: Sir Mortimer Durand [LondonGazette |issue=27614 |date=10 November 1903 |startpage=6854 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1907–1913: James Bryce [LondonGazette |issue=27995 |date=15 February 1907 |startpage=1065 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1913–1918: Sir Cecil Spring-Rice [LondonGazette |issue=28713 |date=25 April 1913 |startpage=2975 |accessdate=2008-06-21]
*1918–1919: Rufus Isaacs, 1st Earl of Reading
*1919–1920: Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon
*1920–1924: Sir Auckland Geddes
*1924–1930: Sir Esme Howard
*1930–1939: Sir Ronald Lindsay
*1939–1940: Philip Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian
*1940–1946: Edward Wood, 3rd Viscount Halifax
*1946–1948: Archibald Clark Kerr, 1st Baron Inverchapel
*1948–1952: Sir Oliver Franks
*1953–1956: Sir Roger Makins
*1956–1961: Sir Harold Caccia
*1961–1965: Sir David Ormsby-Gore
*1965–1969: Sir Patrick Dean
*1969–1971: John Freeman
*1971–1974: Rowland Baring, 3rd Earl of Cromer
*1974–1977: Sir Peter Ramsbotham
*1977–1979: Peter Jay
*1979–1982: Sir Nicholas Henderson
*1982–1986: Sir Oliver Wright
*1986–1991: Sir Antony Acland
*1991–1995: Sir Robin Renwick
*1995–1997: Sir John Kerr
*1997–2003: Sir Christopher Meyer
*2003–2007: Sir David Manning
*2007–present: Sir Nigel Sheinwald [ [http://www.britainusa.com/sections/index_nt1.asp?i=41030&L1=41004&L2=41030&D=3 The British Ambassador ] ]

Ambassadors in fiction

*Lord John Marbury, in NBC's "The West Wing".
*Sir Mark Brydon, in the BBC's "The State Within".

References

External links

* [http://www.washdiplomat.com/ambprof/uk_nire.html British Ambassador]
* [http://www.britainusa.com/index.asp British Embassy in Washington]


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