- Advanced Learner's Dictionary
An advanced learner's dictionary is a
monolingual learner's dictionary, that is, a dictionarywritten for non-native speakers. It differs from a bilingual or translationdictionary, on the one hand, and a standard dictionary written for native speakersor linguistic scholars, on the other.
A learner's dictionary is intended for non-native speakers who want information about the meaning and usage of words and phrases. Such dictionaries focus on current meanings, omitting outdated uses;
etymology, a staple of standard dictionaries, is also usually omitted. All headwords are explained in uncomplicated language, typically using a core defining vocabulary of some 3,000 words, thus making the definitions more digestible to learners. There are many example phrases and sentences, but no quotations. Appendices and interspersed notes serve the targeted readership, providing additional guidance and help, for example with the usage of false friends, i.e. words that are often confused by learners.
Most examples of advanced learner's dictionaries are written for
English language learning and teaching.
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary
The first such dictionary was the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary", first published 60 years ago. It is the largest
English languagedictionary from Oxford University Pressaimed at a non-native audience. Users with a more linguistic interest, requiring etymologies or copious references, usually prefer the " Concise Oxford Dictionary", or indeed the magnum opusthe " Oxford English Dictionary", or other dictionaries aimed at speakers of English with native-level competence.
The dictionary was first published in 1948; the current edition is the seventh, edited by Sally Wehmeier, and runs to 1,880 pages. It is now published on paper and as a
CD-ROM(ISBN 0-19-431586-X); the latter includes many etymologies. The following editions exist:
* First edition first published in 1948 (12
* Second edition first published in 1963 (19 impressions)
* Third edition first published in 1974 (28 impressions)
* Fourth edition first published in 1989 (50 impressions)
* Fifth edition first published in 1995 (65 impressions)
* Sixth edition first published in 2000 (117 impressions)
* Seventh edition first published in 2005
The "Advanced Learner's Dictionary", previously entitled the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English", started life as the "Idiomatic and Syntactic Dictionary", published in
Japanin 1942. It then made a perilous wartime journey to Britain where it came under the wing of the OUP, which decided it would be the perfect counterpart for the prestigious OED.
Albert Sydney Hornby was a teacher of
English studiesat a small college in Japan; he had gone there in 1923 to teach literature, but his experiences in the classroom drew his attention to the need for sound principles of language teaching. At that time Harold E. Palmerheaded the Institute for Research into English Teaching in Tokyo, and in 1931 he invited Hornby to work on vocabulary development at the Institute. The result of this was the "Idiomatic and Syntactic Dictionary", published by Kaitakusha in 1942. A year before publication, Hornby had managed to send an advance copyin sheets of the book to B. Ifor Evans at the British Council, a tough feat during the war. Ifor Evans offered him a job, and in 1942 Hornby came back to Britain and joined the Council, which posted him to Iran.
The sheets reached Humphrey S. Milford, then publisher to the
University of Oxfordand effectively OUP's managing director. Milford saw immediately that the dictionary could fill a troublesome gap in the Press's lists, since it was compiled for non-English speakers and rested on Hornby's solid experience in teaching the language overseas. Thus it explained spelling, grammar, phonetics, and usage much more extensively than would a dictionary for native English speakers. With the cachet of the Press to promote it, it could take the "Oxford dictionary" brand to readerships that might be intimidated or puzzled by the more magisterial OED.
command economyof World War IIunder which all British publisherswere then operating posed a problem: everything was in short supply, and Milford appealed to the British Council for help in getting the paper and cloth. [OUP Archives held at the OUP headquarters, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, UK, Milford's Letterbooks Vol. 165 fol. 493, Milford to Ifor Evans, 4 July 1941.] . He referred the matter to E.C. Parnwell, who was looking after the Press’s overseas projects, Milford being by then too unwell to manage the Press without substantial assistance, as he had been doing since 1904. [OUP Archives held at the OUP headquarters, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, UK, Milford's Letterbooks Vol. 165 fol. 493, Milford to Ifor Evans, 4 July 1941.]
Hornby had brought with him the world rights to the book excluding Japan and China; Kenneth Sisam, then Secretary to the Delegates of the Press, gave a favourable report to the Delegates on the book. Milford also cleverly used the current state of hostility with Japan to push for a subsidy from the British Council, although all he actually said was that "the Japanese are very cheap producers" and were likely to capture the market.
The book had more than 1,500 pages and for an edition of 10,000 copies would need ten tons of paper. Milford applied for a special release to acquire this paper "in the direct interest of
British cultureand overseas trade, particularly in the non- sterlingareas". He had adequate paper stock to begin the edition but this was all earmarked for "essential reprints" and he could only use it if replacements were guaranteed. [OUP Archives, Milford's Letterbooks, Vol. 165 fol. 632B, Milford to Ifor Evans, 8 August; fol. 757, 19 September 1941] Milford's niece, Eleanor M. Booker, was now working at the India Office, and he lobbied for paper through her.
Finally the book came out in 1943 and became an instant success. Today it is one of the most used resources by learners of the English language worldwide.
Other dictionaries for intermediate to advanced learners are the "Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English" (ISBN 0-582-77646-5) from
Longman; the "Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary", published by the Cambridge University Press(ISBN 0-521-53106-3), and the "Collins COBUILDAdvanced Learner's English Dictionary" (ISBN 0-00-715799-1) from HarperCollins.Online alternative dictionary for beginner to advanced levels: English Learner's Online Collaborative Dictionary
* [http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/?cc=global OUP's general site for the Advanced Learner's Dictionary]
* [http://www.oup.com/us/corporate/publishingprograms/esl/titles/dictionaries/oald/?view=usa OUP USA's page on the book]
* [http://www.cornelsen.de/oald/1.c.115029.de Short English-language account on a German site.]
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