- Vermont in the American Civil War
American Civil War, the State of Vermontcontinued the military tradition started by the Green Mountain Boysof Revolutionary Warfame, contributing a significant portion of its eligible men to the war effort.
The second article in Vermont's constitution, originally written in 1777, abolished
slavery, making it the first state to do so. Although its climate was not conducive to the slave trade, Vermonters were early participants in the abolitionistmovement. In the 1860 presidential election, the Green Mountain State gave Abraham Lincolna lopsided victory, 33,808 votes compared to 8,649 for Stephen Douglas, 1,866 for John C. Breckenridge, and 217 for John Bell. One historian opined that the heavy rain on election day "reduced the Republican majority by at least 7,000" votes. [Walter Hill Crockett, "Vermont The Green Mountain State," (The Century History Company, Inc., New York, 1921), iii:491.]
In the closing days of 1860, in response to a pro-Southern resolution by Representative
Albert Rustof Arkansas, Vermont Representative Justin S. Morrilloffered an amendment, "Resolved, That in the opinion of this committee, the existing discontent among the Southern people and the growing hostility to the Federal Government, are greatly to be regretted, and that any reasonable, proper and constitutional remedy necessary to preserve the peace of the country, and the perpetuity of the Union, should be promptly and cheerfully grant." His amendment was rejected by a large majority, and Congress and the Union continued its downward spiral toward disunion. [Ibid, iii:496]
Lucius E. Chittendenserved on the ill-fated Peace conference of 1861and later as Registrar of the Treasury in the Lincoln administration. Vermont politicians in Congress included Senators Solomon Footand Jacob Collamerand Representatives Justin S. Morrill, Homer Elihu Royceand Portus Baxter.
During the war, three men served as
Governor of Vermont— Erastus Fairbanks, Frederick Holbrookand J. Gregory Smith. Fairbanks reportedly responded to the Federal Government's response for troops with "Vermont will do its Full Duty." Under his administration, Vermont fielded six infantryand one cavalryregiments. Governor Holbrook's administration saw the recruitment of 10 infantry regiments, 2 light artillerybatteries, and 3 sharpshootercompanies. Under his administration, as well, Vermont built three military hospitals in the state which were "soon credited by the United States medical inspector with perfecting a larger percentage of cures than any United States military hospital record elsewhere could show." [Nancy E. Boone and Michael Sherman, "Designed to Cure: Civil War Hospitals in Vermont," "Vermont History," Winter 2001, 69:174] Governor Smith oversaw the recruitment of Vermont's last infantry regiment, a third light artillery battery, and, as a result of a Confederate raid on his hometown, St. Albans, two companies of frontier cavalry.
More than 28,100 Vermonters served in Vermont volunteer units. Vermont fielded 17 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry regiment, 3 light artillery batteries, 1
heavy artillerycompany, 3 companies of sharpshooters, and 2 companies of frontier cavalry. Instead of replacing units as they were depleted, Vermont regularly provided recruits to bring the units in the field back up to normal strength.
Nearly 5,000 others served in other states' units, in the
United States Armyor the United States Navy. The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantryincluded 66 Vermont blacks; a total of 166 black Vermonters served out of a population of 709 in the state.
Vermonters suffered a total of 1,832 men killed or mortally wounded in battle; another 3,362 died of disease, in prison or from other causes, for a total loss of 5,194. More than 2,200 Vermonters were taken prisoner during the war, and 615 of them died in or as a result of their imprisonment.
Winfield Scott, learning that a regiment of Green Mountain Boys (the 1st Vermont Infantry) was awaiting orders, said "I want your Vermont regiments, all of them. I have not forgotten the Vermont men on the Niagara frontier... I remember the Vermont men in the War of 1812." [Benedict, G. G., "Vermont in the Civil War. A History of the part taken by the Vermont Soldiers And Sailors in the War For The Union, 1861-5," Burlington, VT.: The Free Press Association, 1888, i:33-34]
A significant number of generals hailed from Vermont. Several led Vermont units, including
Lewis A. Grant, John W. Phelps, William Farrar Smith, George J. Stannard, Edwin H. Stoughton, Stephen Thomas, James M. Warner, and William Wells. Others served in other states' units or in the Regular Army, including Benjamin Alvord, John C. Caldwell, Sylvester Churchill, Joel Dewey, Charles Doolittle, William B. Hazen, Ethan Allen Hitchcock, Charles Edward Hovey, Joseph A. Mower, Thomas E. G. Ransom, Israel B. Richardson, Benjamin S. Roberts, Truman Seymour, George Crockett Strong, Stewart Van Vliet, and George Wright. Six Vermonters became brevet brigadier general, including Asa P. Blunt, George P. Foster, William W. Henry, John R. Lewis, Edward H. Ripleyand Charles B. Stoughton.
One native Vermonter,
Chester A. Arthur, who later became President of the United States, served as Adjutant Generalof the State of New Yorkduring the war.
Vermonters played a significant role in the maritime aspects of the war as well, but they frequently get overlooked. Some of the more prominent sailors include
George Dewey, Charles Edgar Clark, George F. Emmons, George Colvocoresses, Theodore P. Greene, Edward D. Robie, and Edwin T. Woodward.
The first military action seen by Vermonters was at the
Battle of Big Bethelon June 10, 1861, where a battalion of the 1st Vermont Infantrywas engaged.
The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and later the
11th Vermont Infantryregiments served in the famous 1st Vermont Brigade, which saw action in nearly every major engagement in the Eastern Theater from the First Battle of Bull Runto Appomattox Court House.
7th Vermont Infantry, 8th Vermont Infantry, and two Vermont Light Artillery Batteriesserved in the Department of the Gulf under Benjamin F. Butler. The 8th Vermont later saw service in the Shenandoah Valley Campaigns of 1864.
9th Vermont Infantrysuffered ignominious capture at the Battle of Harpers Ferryduring the 1862 Maryland Campaign, but later fought well with the VII, XVIII and XXIV Corps in eastern Virginiaand North Carolina, and was one of the first units to enter Richmond, Virginiain April 1865.
10th Vermont Infantrygained its niche in history at the Battle of Monocacy, an important but often overlooked battle that delayed a Confederate drive on Washington D.C..
The 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th and
16th Vermont Infantryregiments were banded together as the 2nd Vermont Brigade, which gained lasting credit for its actions in helping stop Pickett's Chargeon July 3, 1863, during the Battle of Gettysburg.
Vermont fielded three companies of
sharpshooters, which served with Hiram Berdanin the two U.S. Sharpshooter regiments.
1st Vermont Cavalryregiment participated in more than 70 engagements.
St. Albans raidon October 19, 1864, Vermont fielded two companies of Frontier Cavalry, who spent six months on the Canadian border to prevent further incursions from Confederate raiders.
Sixty-four Vermonters received the
Medal of Honor, including Willie Johnston, the youngest person ever to receive this award.
Notable Civil War leaders from Vermont
Lewis A. Grant
J. Gregory Smith
William Farrar Smith
George J. Stannard
* William Wells
Civil War sites in Vermont
St. Albans, Vermont, is the site of the northernmost land action in the Civil War, the
St. Albans Raid. On October 19, 1864, Confederate raiders, under the command of Lieutenant Bennett H. Young, robbed three banks, escaped to Canada, were captured, and put on trial. The Canadian courts decided they were acting under military orders and they could not be extradited back to the United States without Canada violating her neutrality.
Most Vermont towns have a monument in memory of the soldiers who participated in the Civil War. Decades after the war, the upland hillsides of the state were littered with the cellar holes of long-gone farmhouses from farms that had been abandoned because all the family's sons had been killed in the Civil War.
There are several facilities in the state that have significant collections of manuscripts and archives of the war, including the
Vermont State House, the Vermont Historical Society, University of Vermont Bailey Howe Library, the Bennington Museum, the Sheldon Museum (Middlebury), the Vermont Veterans Militia Museum and Library, and the State of Vermont Public Records Division.
* Benedict, G. G., "Vermont in the Civil War. A History of the part taken by the Vermont Soldiers And Sailors in the War For The Union, 1861-5." Burlington, VT.: The Free Press Association, 1888.
* Crockett, Walter Hill, "Vermont The Green Mountain State," New York: The Century History Company, Inc., 1921.
* Fox, William F., "Regimental Losses In The American Civil War 1861-1865." Albany: Albany Publishing Company. 1889.
* Lane, E. H., "The soldiers' record of Jericho, Vermont." Burlington, VT.: R.S. Styles, 1868.
* Peck, Theodore S., compiler, "Revised Roster of Vermont Volunteers and lists of Vermonters Who Served in the Army and Navy of the United States During the War of the Rebellion, 1861-66. Montpelier, VT.: Press of the Watchman Publishing Co., 1892.
* Coffin, Howard, "Full Duty: Vermonters in the Civil War." Woodstock, VT.: Countryman Press, 1995; "Nine Months to Gettysburg. The Vermonters Who Broke Pickett's Charge." Woodstock, VT.: Countryman Press, 1997; "The Battered Stars: One State's Civil War Ordeal during Grant's Overland Campaign." Woodstock, VT.: Countryman Press, 2002.
* Dornbusch, C. E., "Regimental Publications & Personal Narratives of the Civil War.," Vol I Northern States, Part 2 New England: The New York Public Library, 1962.
* Dyer, Frederick Henry, "A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion." New York: T. Yoseloff, 1908. 3 vol.
* Poirier, Robert G., "By the Blood of our Alumni: Norwich University Citizen-Soldiers in the Army of the Potomac." Mason City, IA: Savas Publishing Co., 1999.
* U.S. War Department, "The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies", 70 volumes in 4 series. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1880-1901.
* Wickman, Don," "We Are Coming Father Abra'am," The History of the 9th Vermont Volunteer Infantry 1862-1865." Lynchburg, VA: Schroeder Publications, 2005.
* Zeller, Paul G., "The Second Vermont Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 1861-1865". Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2002.
* [http://vermontcivilwar.org Vermont In The Civil War]
* [http://www.vermonthistory.org Vermont Historical Society]
* [http://library.uvm.edu/services/bailey/index.html University of Vermont Bailey Howe Library]
* [http://www.benningtonmuseum.com/index.aspx Bennington Museum]
* [http://www.vtguard.com/museum/index.htm Vermont Veterans Militia Museum and Library]
* [http://www.bgs.state.vt.us/gsc/pubrec/referen/military.htm Vermont Military Records Project, Vermont Public Records Division]
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