Epidote

Epidote

Infobox mineral
name = Epidote
category = Silicate mineral
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caption = Epidote crystals
formula = Ca2Al2(Fe3+;Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH)
molweight =
color = Pistachio-green, yellow-green, greenish black
habit = Prismatic with striations, fibrous, massive
system = Monoclinic - Prismatic
twinning = On [100]
cleavage = Perfect on [001]
fracture = Flat regular to uneven
mohs = 7
luster = Vitreous to resinous
refractive = nα = 1.715 - 1.751 nβ = 1.725 - 1.784 nγ = 1.734 - 1.797
opticalprop = Biaxial (-)
birefringence = δ = 0.019 - 0.046
pleochroism = Strong
streak = Greyish white
gravity = 3.3 - 3.6
density =
melt =
fusibility =
diagnostic =
solubility =
diaphaneity = Transparent to nearly opaque
other =
references = [http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/epidote.pdf Handbook of Mineralogy] [http://www.mindat.org/min-1389.html Mindat] [http://webmineral.com/data/Epidote.shtml Webmineral]

Epidote is a calcium aluminium iron sorosilicate mineral, Ca2Al2(Fe3+;Al)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH), crystallizing in the monoclinic system. Well-developed crystals are of frequent occurrence: they are commonly prismatic in habit, the direction of elongation being perpendicular to the single plane of symmetry. The faces are often deeply striated and crystals are often twinned. Many of the characters of the mineral vary with the amount of iron present for instance, the color, the optical constants, and the specific gravity. The color is green, grey, brown or nearly black, but usually a characteristic shade of yellowish-green or pistachio-green. It displays strong pleochroism, the pleochroic colors being usually green, yellow and brown. Clinozoisite is white or pale rose-red variety containing very little iron, thus having the same chemical composition as the orthorhombic mineral zoisite.

Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral, but one of secondary origin. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin. It is also a product of hydrothermal alteration of various minerals (feldspars, micas, pyroxenes, amphiboles, garnets, and others) composing igneous rocks. A rock composed of quartz and epidote is known as epidosite. Well-developed crystals are found at many localities: Knappenwand, near the Großvenediger in the Untersulzbachthal in Salzburg, as magnificent, dark green crystals of long prismatic habit in cavities in epidote schist, with asbestos, adularia, calcite, and apatite; the Ala valley and Traversella in Piedmont; Arendal in Norway; Le Bourg-d'Oisans in Dauphiné; Haddam in Connecticut; Prince of Wales Island in Alaska, here as large, dark green, tabular crystals with copper ores in metamorphosed limestone.

The perfectly transparent, dark green crystals from the Knappenwand and from Brazil have occasionally been cut as gemstones.

Belonging to the same isomorphous group with epidote are the species piemontite and allanite, which may be described as manganese and cerium epidotes respectively.

Piemontite occurs as small, reddish-black, monoclinic crystals in the manganese mines at San Marcel, near Ivrea in Piedmont, and in crystalline schists at several places in Japan. The purple color of the Egyptian porfido rosso antico is due to the presence of this mineral.

Allanite has the same general epidote formula and contains metals of the cerium group. In external appearance it differs widely from epidote, being black or dark brown in color, pitchy in lustre, and opaque in the mass; further, there is little or no cleavage, and well-developed crystals are rare. The crystallographic and optical characters are similar to those of epidote; the pleochroism is strong with reddish-, yellowish-, and greenish-brown colors. Although not a common mineral, allanite is of fairly wide distribution as a primary accessory constituent of many crystalline rocks, gneiss, granite, syenite, rhyolite, andesite, and others. It was first found in the granite of east Greenland and described by Thomas Allan in 1808, after whom the species was named. Allanite is a mineral readily altered by hydration, becoming optically isotropic and amorphous: for this reason several varieties have been distinguished, and many different names applied. Orthite was the name given by Jöns Berzelius in 1818 to a hydrated form found as slender prismatic crystals, sometimes a foot in length, at Finbo, near Falun in Sweden..

References

*1911

External links

* [http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/epidote/epidote.htm The mineral Epidote Mineral Galleries]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Épidote — Catégorie IX : silicates[1] Epidote Gisement topotype Bourg d Oisans, France (33x18 cm) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Epidote — Ep i*dote, n. [Gr. ? to give besides; ? over + ? to give: cf. F. [ e]pidote. So named from the enlargement of the base of the primary, in some of the secondary forms.] (Min.) A mineral, commonly of a yellowish green (pistachio) color, occurring… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Epidote — Épidote Épidote Catégorie IX : silicates Épidote de Slovaquie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • épidote — ● épidote nom féminin (grec epidotos, de epididonai, s accroître) Silicate hydraté naturel d aluminium, de calcium et de fer, que l on trouve dans les roches métamorphiques, en cristaux le plus souvent de couleur vert pistache. ⇒ÉPIDOTE, subst.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • epidote — [ep′ə dōt΄] n. [Fr épidote < Gr epididonai, to give besides, increase < epi , over + didonai, to give (see DATE1): so named by R. J. Haüy (1743 1822), Fr mineralogist; from the enlarged base of some of the crystal forms] hydrous calcium… …   English World dictionary

  • epidote — epidotic /ep i dot ik/, adj. /ep i doht /, n. a mineral, calcium aluminum iron silicate, Ca2(Al, Fe)3Si3O12(OH), occurring in green prismatic crystals. [1800 10; < F épidote < Gk *epidotós given besides, increased (verbid of epididónai), equiv.… …   Universalium

  • epidote — noun Etymology: French épidote, from Greek epididonai to give in addition, from epi + didonai to give more at date Date: 1808 a yellowish green mineral Ca2(Al,Fe)3Si3O12OH usually occurring in grains or columnar masses and sometimes used as a… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • épidote — (é pi do t ) s. m. Sorte de minéral qui se présente sous la forme d aiguilles aplaties ; c est un silicate. ÉTYMOLOGIE    Épidote, qui a reçu un accroissement ou allongement dans un sens, et provenant de deux mots grecs se traduisant par : sur et …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • epidote — [ ɛpɪdəʊt] noun a lustrous yellow green mineral consisting of a silicate of calcium, aluminium, and iron. Origin C19: from Fr. épidote, from Gk epididonai give additionally (because of the length of the crystals) …   English new terms dictionary

  • epidote — ep•i•dote [[t]ˈɛp ɪˌdoʊt[/t]] n. mir a mineral, hydrous calcium aluminum iron silicate, Ca2(Al, Fe)3Si3O12(OH), occurring in green prismatic crystals or in masses • Etymology: 1800–10; < F épidote < Gk *epidotós given besides, increased ep… …   From formal English to slang

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