Itmam al-hujjah

Itmam al-hujjah

Itmām al-hujjah (Arabic _ar. اتمام الحجة "completion of proof", from "ArabDIN|itmāmu" "completion, realization" and "ArabDIN|ḥuǧǧatu" "pretext, proof") is an Islamic concept denoting that religious truth has been completely clarified by a Messenger of God and made available to a people, who are considered to have no excuse to deny it.

Role of a Messenger

The concept of Itmām al-hujjah requires that religious truth is presented by a Rasul (Messenger) and not by a mere Nabi (Prophet). The former is distinguished from the latter by having received a message for a community in the form of a book and by being assured success. While all messengers are prophets, not all prophets are messengers. [Esposito(2005), p. 20] [Islahi, vol. 8, p.273] [ [ Rasul and nabi] ] In Shiite Islam, an Imam can also be "hujjah" through whom God's presence becomes established for a believer. [Esposito(2003), p.117]

Punishment of adversaries

The Qu'ran asserts that after Itmām al-hujjah has been attained, those rejecting the religious truth have no excuse and are punished by God.

This punishment is considered to occur both in this world and the next world. The judgment in this world is considered a rehearsal for the ultimate punishment or reward on the Day of Judgement.Amjad(2001), [ Some Clarifications Regarding the Position & the Mission of a Rasu'l] ]

The Qur'an explains this punishment in the following verse:Saleem(2002)]

And the disbelievers said to their Messengers: ‘‘We will drive you out of our land, or you return to our religion’’. But their Lord inspired [this message] to them [the Messengers] : ‘‘Verily We will cause the wrong-doers to perish! And verily We will cause you to abide in the land, and succeed them. This is for those who feared the time when they shall stand before My tribunal and those who feared My warnings’’. cite quran|14|9|end=14)

Generally, the punishment is considered to come either through natural disaster or through human hands. Ghamidi(2005), [ The Islamic Law of Jihad] ]

Punishment through natural disaster

Punishment comes through natural calamities, if the "Messenger" has very few companions and no place to migrate.

Examples in the Qur’an are the nations of Noah, Lot, Saleh, and Shoaib along with some other nations of Messengers, which were punished in the form of raging storms, cyclones and other calamities, which completely destroyed them. A notable exception would be the "People of the Book", who as monotheists were not destroyed but reduced to a subjugated status. The Israelites are considered punished by "constant subjugation to the followers of Jesus till the Day of Judgement". The Qur'an explains this in following verse: [Maududi(1971), [ Verse 3:55] ]

Remember when God said: ‘O Jesus! I will terminate [your period] and raise you to Myself and cleanse you from those who have denied you; I will make those who follow you superior to those who reject faith till the Day of Resurrection. cite quran|3|55

Punishment through human hands

Punishment comes through human hands, if the Messenger has migrated from his people to another place, where he has achieved political sovereignty and a considerable number of followers. The Messenger consolidates his power and trains his followers and prepares them for battle, so that he is able to root out the disbelievers and establish the supremacy of his religion.

According to Ghamidi, the chief example in the Qur'an is Muhammad himself, who after having conquered Mecca and given the Arabian polytheists a respite of four months, ordered his followers to fight and kill them until they had embraced Islam. The Qur'an says:

But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war); but if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practise regular charity, then open the way for them: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. cite quran|9|5

According to Ghamidi, another verse reiterates and also deals with the punishment of Jews and Christians, who as monotheists are not threatened with death but merely subjugated to the status of dhimmis:.

Fight those who believe not in Allah or the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the Religion of Truth, from among the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission and are subdued. cite quran|9|29

Muslims also cite Moses as an example, especially his punishment of those worshipping the Golden calf. [cite quran|2|54|style=ref]

ee also

*Aslim Taslam
*Fate of the unlearned
*Islamic term
*Muhammad as a diplomat
*Muhammad as a general
*Repentance in Islam



* cite book
last = Esposito
first = John
authorlink = John Esposito
title = Islam: The Straight Path
publisher = Oxford University Press
year = 2005
edition = 3rd
doi =
id = ISBN 0-19-511233-4

* cite book
last = Ghamidi
first = Javed
authorlink = Javed Ahmed Ghamidi
title = Mizan
publisher = Dar ul-Ishraq
year = 2001
doi =
id = OCLC|52901690

* cite book
last = Armstrong
first = Karen
authorlink = Karen Armstrong
title =
publisher = Heinemann
year = 1993
doi =
id = ISBN 0-434-02456-2

* cite book
last = Maududi
first = Abul Ala
authorlink = Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi
title = The Meaning of the Qur'an
publisher = Islamic Publications
location = Lahore
year = 1971
doi =
id = OCLC|7849929

* cite journal
quotes =
author = Saleem, Shehzad
date =
year = 2002
month = March
title = Islam and Non-Muslims: A New Perspective
journal = Renaissance
volume = 12
issue = 3
pages =
doi =
id = ISSN [ 1606-9382]
url =
format =
accessdate = 2006-10-05

*cite book
last = Esposito
first = John
authorlink = John Esposito
title = The Oxford Dictionary of Islam
publisher = Oxford University Press
year = 2003
doi =
id = ISBN 0-19-512558-4

*cite book | last = Islahi | first = Amin | authorlink = Amin Ahsan Islahi | title = Tadabbur-i-Qur’an | publisher = Faran Foundation | location = Lahore | edition = 1st | id = OCLC|60341215

External links

* [ Itmam al-Hujjah of the offspring of Abraham and their Dominance]

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