- Single Vegetative Obstruction Model
The

**ITU Single Vegetative Obstruction Model**is aRadio propagation model that quantitatively approximates theattenuation due to the vegetation in the middle of a telecommunication link.**Applicable to/under conditions**The model is applicable to scenarios where no end of the link is completely inside foliage, but a single plant or tree stands in the middle of the link.

**Coverage**Frequency = Below 3 GHz and Over 5 GHzDepth = Not specified**Mathematical formulations**The single vegetative obstruction model is formally expressed as,

$A\; =\; egin\{cases\}d\; gamma\; mbox\{\; ,\; frequency\}\; 3\; GHz\; \backslash \; R\_fd\; ;+;k\; [1-e^\{(R\_f\; -\; R\_i)frac\{d\}\{k]\; mbox\{\; ,\; frequency\}\; 5\; GHz\; end\{cases\}$

where,"A" = The

Attenuation due to vegetation. Unit:decibel (dB)."d" = Depth of foliage. Unit:

Meter (m).$gamma$ =

Specific attenuation for short vegetative paths. Unit: decibel permeter (dB/m)."R"

_{i}= The initialslope of the attenuation curve."R"

_{f}= The finalslope of the attenuation curve."f" = The

frequency of operations. Unit:gigahertz (GHz)."k" =

Empirical constant .**Calculation of slopes**Initial slope is calculated as:

$R\_i;=;af$

And the final slope as:

$R\_f;=;bf^c$

where,

"a", "b" and "c" are empirical constants (given in the table below).

**Calculation of "k"**"k" is computed as:

$k\; =\; k\_0;-;10;log\; \{\; [A\_0;(1;-;e^\{frac\{-A^i\}\{A\_0)(1-e^\{R\_ff\})]\; \}$

where,

"k"

_{0}= Empirical constant (given in the table below)."R"

_{f}= Empirical constant for frequency dependent attenuation."A"

_{0}= Empirical attenuation constant (given in the table below)."A"

_{i}= Illumination area.**Calculation of "A"**_{i}"A"

_{i}is calculated in using any of the equations below. A point to note is that, the terms "h", "h"_{T}, "h"_{R}, "w", "w"_{T}and "w"_{R}are defined perpendicular to the (assumed horizontal) line joining the transmitter and receiver. The first three terms are measured vertically and the other thee are measured horizontally.Equation 1: $A\_i;=;min(w\_T,\; w\_R,\; w);x;min(h\_T,\; h\_R,\; h)$

Equation 2: $A\_i;=;min(2d\_T;\; an\; \{frac\{a\_T\}\{2,\; 2d\_R\; an\{frac\{a\_R\}\{2,\; w);x;min(2d\_T\; an\; \{frac\{e\_T\}\{2,\; 2d\_R\; an\{frac\{e\_R\}\{2,\; h)$

where,

"w"

_{T}= Width of illuminated area as seen from the transmitter. Unit: meter (m)"w"

_{R}= Width of illuminated area as seen from the receiver. Unit: meter (m)"w" = Width of the vegetation. Unit: meter (m)

"h"

_{T}=Height of illuminated area as seen from the transmitter. Unit: meter (m)"h"

_{R}= Height of illuminated area as seen from the receiver. Unit: meter (m)"h" = Height of the vegetation. Unit: meter (m)

"a"

_{T}= Azimuth beamwidth of the transmitter. Unit: degree or radian"a"

_{R}= Azimuth beamwidth of the receiver. Unit: degree or radian"e"

_{T}= Elevation beamwidth of the transmitter. Unit: degree or radian"e"

_{R}= Elevation beamwidth of the receiver. Unit: degree or radian"d"

_{T}= Distance of the vegetation from transmitter. Unit: meter(m)"d"

_{R}= Distance of the vegetation from receiver. Unit: meter(m)**The empirical constants**Empirical constants a, b, c, k

_{0}, R_{f}and A_{0}are used as tabulated below.**Limitations**The model predicts the explicit path loss due to the existence of vegetation along the link. The total path loss includes other factors like free space loss which is not included in this model.

Over 5 GHz, the equations suddenly become extremely complex in consideration of the equations for below 3 GHz. Also, this model does not work for frequency between 3 GHz and 5 GHz.

**Further reading*** Introduction to RF propagation, John S. Seybold, 2005, Wiley.

**ee also***

Radio propagation model

*Weissberger's Model

*Early ITU Model

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