Sulfatase

Sulfatase

Pfam_box
Symbol = Sulfatase
Name =



width =200
caption =Steryl-sulfatase
Pfam= PF00884
InterPro= IPR000917
SMART=
PROSITE = PDOC00117
SCOP = 1auk
TCDB =
OPM family= 24
OPM protein= 1p49
PDB=PDB3|1fsu :43-486 PDB3|1hdhB:3-501 PDB3|1p49A:25-514PDB3|1n2kA:19-440 PDB3|1e3cP:19-440 PDB3|1e2sP:19-440PDB3|1e1zP:19-440 PDB3|2aikP:68-74 PDB3|1e33P:19-440PDB3|1auk :19-440 PDB3|1n2lA:19-440

Sulfatases EC number|3.1.6. are enzymes of the esterase class that catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate esters. These may be found on a range of substrates, including steroids, carbohydrates and proteins. Sulfate esters may be formed from various alcohols and amines. In the latter case the resultant N-sulfates can also be termed sulfamates.

Sulfatases play important roles in the cycling of sulfur in the environment, in the degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and glycolipids in the lysosome, and in remodelling sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular space. Together with sulfotransferases, sulfatases form the major catalytic machinery for the synthesis and breakage of sulfate esters.

Occurrence and importance

Sulfatases are found in lower and higher organisms. In higher organisms they are found in intracellular and extracellular spaces. A large number of sulfatases are localized in the lysosome, an acidic digestive organelle found within the cell. Lysosomal sulfatases cleave a range of sulfated carbohydrates including sulfated glycosaminoglycans and glycolipids. Genetic defects in sulfatase activity can arise through mutations in individual sulfatases and result in certain lysosomal storage disorders with a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from defects in physical and intellectual development.

Three-dimensional structure

The following sulfatases have been shown to be structurally related based on their sequence homology:cite journal |author=von Figura K, Vingron M, Schmidt B, Meyer HE, Peters C, Rommerskirch W, Rupp K, Pohlmann R, Zuhlsdorf M |title=Phylogenetic conservation of arylsulfatases. cDNA cloning and expression of human arylsulfatase B |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=265 |issue=6 |pages=3374–3381 |year=1990 |pmid=2303452] cite journal |author=Wilson PJ, Morris CP, Anson DS, Occhiodoro T, Bielicki J, Clements PR, Hopwood JJ |title=Hunter syndrome: isolation of an iduronate-2-sulfatase cDNA clone and analysis of patient DNA |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=87 |issue=21 |pages=8531–8535 |year=1990 |pmid=2122463 |doi=10.1073/pnas.87.21.8531] cite journal |author=Grossman AR, de Hostos EL, Schilling J |title=Structure and expression of the gene encoding the periplasmic arylsulfatase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii |journal=Mol. Gen. Genet. |volume=218 |issue=2 |pages=229–239 |year=1989 |pmid=2476654 |doi=10.1007/BF00331273]
* cerebroside-sulfatase
* steryl-sulfatase
*arylsulfatase A EC number|3.1.6.8 (ASA), a lysosomal enzyme which hydrolyzes cerebroside sulfate;
*arylsulfatase B EC number|3.1.6.12 (ASB) which hydrolyzes the sulfate ester group from N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate residues of dermatan sulfate;
*arylsulfatase C (ASD) and E (ASE); steryl-sulfatase EC number|3.1.6.2 (STS), a membrane bound enzyme which hydrolyzes 3-beta-hydroxy steroid sulfates;
*iduronate 2-sulfatase EC number|3.1.6.13 (IDS), a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes the 2-sulfate groups from iduronic acids in dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate;
*N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase EC number|3.1.6.4, which hydrolyzes the 6-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine of chondroitin sulfate and D-galactose 6-sulfate units of keratan sulfate;
*N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase EC number|3.10.1.1, the lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyses N-sulfo-D-glucosamine into glucosamine and sulfate;
*glucosamine-6-sulfatase EC number|3.1.6.14 (G6S), which hydrolyzes the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-sulfate units of heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate;
*N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase EC number|3.10.1.1, the lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyses N-sulfo-D-glucosamine into glucosamine and sulfate;
*sea urchin embryo arylsulfatase EC number|3.1.6.1;
*green algae arylsulfatase EC number|3.1.6.1, which plays a role in the mineralization of sulfates; and
*arylsulfatase EC number|3.1.6.1 from "Escherichia coli", "Klebsiella aerogenes" and "Pseudomonas aeruginosa".

Human proteins containing this domain

ARSA; ARSB; ARSD; ARSE; ARSF; ARSG; ARSH; ARSI;
ARSJ; ARSK; GALNS; GNS; IDS; PIGG; SGSH; STS;
SULF1; SULF2;

References

External links

*
* [http://www.rndsystems.com/molecule_group.aspx?g=954&r=6 Overview at rndsystems.com]
* [http://www.mad-cow.org/00/annotation_frames/tools/genbrow/sulfatases/sulfatases.html "Annotation of the sulfatase gene family" at mad-cow.org]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • sulfatase — [sylfatɑz] n. f. ÉTYM. Mil. XXe; de sulfate, et ase. ❖ ♦ Chim., biol. Enzyme qui active l hydrolyse d un ester sulfurique …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • sulfatase — /sul feuh tays , tayz /, n. Biochem. any of a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfuric acid esters. [ < G Sulfatase (1924); see SULFATE, ASE] * * * …   Universalium

  • sulfatase — ˈsəlfəˌtās noun ( s) Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary sulfate (I) + ase : any of various esterases that accelerate the hydrolysis of sulfuric esters and that are found especially in invertebrate and other animal tissues and in… …   Useful english dictionary

  • sulfatase — noun Etymology: 1sulfate Date: 1924 any of various esterases that accelerate the hydrolysis of sulfuric esters and that are found in animal tissues and in microorganisms (as bacteria) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • sulfatase — noun Any of several enzymes, in animals and bacteria, which catalyze the hydrolysis of organic sulfates …   Wiktionary

  • sulfatase — 1. Trivial name for enzymes in EC group 3.1.6, the sulfuric ester hydrolases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfuric esters (sulfates) to the corresponding alcohols plus inorganic sulfate; includes aryl , sterol, glycol , chondroitin, ch …   Medical dictionary

  • Sulfatase — Sul|fa|ta|se [↑ ase], die; , n; Syn.: Sulfat Hydrolase: Sammelbez. für Esterasen, die saure Schwefelsäureester, z. B. Sulfatide, spalten …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Sulfatase — Sul|fa|ta|se die; , n <zu ↑...ase> Enzym, das die Ester der Schwefelsäure spaltet (Biochem.) …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • sulfatase — sul·fat·ase …   English syllables

  • Steroid sulfatase — (microsomal), isozyme S PDB rendering based on 1p49 …   Wikipedia

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