Volkswagen Type 2

Volkswagen Type 2

Infobox Automobile


name = Volkswagen Type 2
manufacturer = Volkswagen
aka = Volkswagen Bus
Volkswagen Transporter
Volkswagen Kambi
production = 1950-present
successor = Volkswagen Vanagon
class = Van
body_style = 3-door van
4-door van
2-door truck
4-door truck
layout = RR layout
The Volkswagen Type 2 (also known as Transporter) was the second automotive line introduced by German automaker Volkswagen. It was a van introduced in 1950, initially based on Volkswagen's first model, the Type 1, also known as the "Beetle". The Type 2 is the forerunner of modern cargo and passenger vans. The Type 2 spawned a number of imitators both in the United States and Europe including the Ford Econoline, Dodge A100, and the Chevrolet Corvan, the last even adopting the Type 2's rear-engine configuration. Updated versions of this line are still being produced in international markets, both as a passenger and cargo van and as a pickup truck.

History

The idea for the Type 2 is credited to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon, who drew the first sketches of the van in 1947. Although the aerodynamics of the first prototypes were poor, heavy optimization took place at the wind tunnel of the Technical University of Braunschweig. The wind tunnel work paid off, as the Type 2 was aerodynamically superior to the Beetle despite its slab-sided shape. Three years later, under the direction of Volkswagen's new CEO Heinz Nordhoff, the first production model left the factory at Wolfsburg.

Unlike other rear-engine Volkswagens, which evolved constantly over time but never saw the introduction of all-new models, the Transporter not only evolved, but was completely revised periodically with variations referred to as versions "T1" to "T5," although only generations T1 to T3 (or T25 as it is called in Ireland and Great Britain) can be seen as directly related to the Beetle (see below for details).

The Type 2 was among the first commercial vehicles in which the driver was placed above the front wheels. As such, it started a trend in Europe, where the Ford Transit among others quickly copied the concept. In the United States, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van and Greenbrier passenger van went so far as to copy the Type 2's rear-engine layout, using the Corvair's horizontally-opposed, air-cooled engine for power. Except for the Greenbrier and various 1950s-70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 remained unique in being rear-engined. This was a disadvantage for the early "barndoor" Panel Vans, which couldn't easily be loaded from the rear due to the engine cover intruding on interior space, but generally advantageous in terms of traction and interior noise.

Another trend that the Type 2 may not have started, but that it certainly gave momentum to, is the use of nicely-trimmed commercial vans as people carriers. This first took hold in the United States in the 1960s, aided by tongue-in-cheek advertising by the Doyle Dane Bernbach agency.

During the hippie era in the United States, the Bus became a major counterculture symbol. There were several reasons: The van could carry a number of people plus camping gear and cooking supplies, extra clothing, do-it-yourself carpenter's tools, etc. As a "statement", its boxy, utilitarian shape made the Type 2 everything the American cars of the day were not. Used models were incredibly cheap to buy — many were hand-painted (a predecessor of the modern-day art car). Some Bus enthusiasts (especially for antiwar activists) would replace the VW logo with a painted peace symbol up front. Since that time, however, the original 1950–1967 Type 2 (primarily the pre-1956 barn-doors) has become a highly sought after collector's item.

The primary danger of the T2 is its rear engine. As the front of the microbus has little or no padding to protect the driver and front-seat passenger from damage in a head-on collision, such accidents are much more dangerous and likely to cause fatalities in the T2.

Variants

The Type 2 was available as a:
* Delivery van without side windows or rear seats (Panel Van).
* Delivery van without side windows or rear seats and cargo doors on both sides (Walk-Through Panel Van).
* Delivery van with raised roof (High Roof Panel Van), or Hochdach.
* Van with side windows and removable rear seats (Kombi, from German "Kombinationskraftwagen" (combination vehicle), i.e. both a passenger and a cargo vehicle combined).
* Van with more comfortable interior reminiscent of passenger cars (Bus; also called Caravelle since the third generation).
* Van with skylight windows and cloth sunroof (Samba-Bus, first generation only; also called Deluxe Microbus).
* Flatbed truck (Pick-up), or Single Cab, also available with wider load bed.
* Flatbed truck, Double Cab, with two rows of seats (Crew Cab Pick-up).
* Camping van (Westy; with Westfalia roof and interior).
* Semi-camping van that can also still be used as a passenger car and transporter, sacrificing some camping comforts (Multivan, or Weekender, available from the third generation on).

Apart from these factory variants, there were a multitude of third-party conversions available, some of which were offered through Volkswagen dealers. They included, but were not limited to, refrigerated vans, hearses, ambulances, police vans, fire engines and ladder trucks, and camping van conversions by companies other than Westfalia.

Generations

T1

Infobox Automobile generation


name = T1
production = 1950-1967 (US and Germany)
1950-1975 (Brazil)
assembly = Anchieta, Brazil
Wolfsburg, Germany
Hanover, Germany
engine = 1131 cc 25 hp H4
1.2L 30 hp H4
1192 cc 36 hp H4
1.5L 42 hp H4
The first generation of the VW Type 2 with the split windshield, called the Microbus or Splittie among modern fans, was produced from March 8, 1950 through the end of the 1967 model year. From 1950 to 1956, the T1 was built in Wolfsburg; from 1956 it was built at the completely new Transporter factory in Hanover. Like the Beetle, the first Transporters used the Volkswagen air cooled engine, an 1131 cc, 25 hp (19 kW), air-cooled four-cylinder boxer engine mounted in the rear. This was upgraded to an 1192 cc (1.2L) 30 hp in 1953. The 36 hp (27 kW) version (also 1192 cc with a higher compression ratio) became standard in 1955 while an unusual early version of the 40 hp (30 kW) engine debuted exclusively on the Type 2 in 1959. This engine proved to be so uncharacteristically troublesome that Volkswagen recalled all 1959 Transporters and replaced the engines with an updated version of the 40 hp (30 kW) engine. Any 1959 models that retain that early engine today are true survivors. Since the engine was totally discontinued at the outset, no parts were ever made available.

The early versions of the T1 until 1955 were often called the T1a or "Barndoor", owing to the enormous rear engine cover, while the later versions with a slightly modified body (the roofline above the windshield is extended), smaller engine bay, and 15 in (381 mm) wheels instead of the original 16 in (406 mm) ones were called the T1b. From the 1963 model year, when the rear door was made wider (same as on the T2), the vehicle was referred to as the T1c. 1963 also saw the introduction of an optional sliding door for the passenger/cargo area instead of the outwardly hinged doors typical of cargo vans. This change arguably makes the 1963 VW the first true minivan, although the term wouldn't be coined for another two decades.Fact|date=August 2007

In 1962, a heavy-duty Transporter was introduced as a factory option. It featured a cargo capacity of one metric ton (1,000 kg) instead of the previous convert|750|kg|lb|0|abbr=on, smaller but wider 14 in (356 mm) wheels, and a 1.5 L, 42 DIN hp (31 kW) engine. This was so successful that only a year later, the 750 kg, 1.2 L Transporter was discontinued. The 1963 model year introduced the 1493 cc (1.5L or "1500") engine as standard equipment to the US market at 51hp (38 kW) with an convert|83|mm|in|1|abbr=on bore, convert|69|mm|in|1|abbr=on stroke, and 7.8 to 1 compression ratio. When the Beetle received the 1.5 L engine for the 1967 model year, its power was increased to 53 hp DIN (40 kW).The Volkswagen Kombis engine has been noted to be very reliable and to also last a very long time.The United States instituted a 25% tariff on pickup trucks in the 1960s with what is known as the "chicken tax". The tax originated when West Germany placed a tariff on U.S. frozen chicken. The United States retaliated with a tariff on four items that included trucks, as Volkswagen was exporting the Volkswagen Type 2 in pickup form. [Zagaroli, Lisa - Thai Pickups threaten Big Three. Detroit News, June 17, 2005]

German production stopped after the 1967 model year; however, the T1 still was made in Brazil until 1975, when it was modified with a 1968-79 T2-style front end and big 1972-vintage taillights into the so-called "T1.5" and produced until 1996. The Brazilian T1s were not identical to the last German models (the T1.5 was locally produced in Brazil using the 1950s and 1960s-era stamping dies to cut down on retooling, alongside the Beetle/Fusca, where the pre-1965 body style was retained), though they sported some characteristic features of the T1a, such as the cargo doors and 5-stud (205 mm bolt circle) rims. Brazil production air-cooled vehicles (including the VW Brasilia) are a rare find in the USA and usually sought after by collectors.Fact|date=August 2007

Among American enthusiasts, it is common to refer to the different models by the number of their windows. The basic Kombi or Bus is the 11-window (a.k.a. 3-window bus because of three side windows) with a split windshield, two front cabin door windows, six rear side windows, and one rear window. The deluxe model featured eight rear side windows and two rear corner windows, making it the 15-window (not available in Europe). Meanwhile, the sunroof deluxe with its additional eight small skylight windows is, accordingly, the 23-window. From the 1963 model year, with its wider rear door, the rear corner windows were discontinued, making the latter two the 13-window and 21-window respectively. The 23 and later 21 window variants are usually described as Sambas.

T2

Infobox Automobile generation


name = T2
production = 1968-1979 (US and Germany)
1968-1991 (Mexico)
1976-present (Brazil)
assembly = Anchieta, Brazil
Hanover, Germany
Puebla, Puebla, Mexico
engine = 1.6L 48 hp H4
1.6L 50 hp H4
1.7L 66 hp H4
1.8L 68 hp H4
2.0L 70 hp H4
transmission = 4-speed manual
3-speed automatic
wheelbase = Auto mm|2400|1
length = Auto mm|4505|1
width = Auto mm|2040|1
height = Auto mm|1720|1
In 1968, the second generation of the Type 2 was introduced. It was built in Germany until 1979, with production shifting to Mexico in 1980. Brazilian VW plant produces the Kombi since the 50s until today. Models before 1971 are often called the T2a, while models after 1972 are called the T2b.

This second-generation Type 2 lost its distinctive split front windshield, and was slightly larger and considerably heavier than its predecessor. Its common nicknames are Breadloaf and Bay-window, or Loaf and Bay for short.Fact|date=June 2008 At 1.6 L and 48 DIN hp (35 kW), the engine was also slightly larger. The new model also did away with the swing axle rear suspension and transfer boxes previously used to raise ride height. Instead, half-shaft axles fitted with CV joints raised ride height without the wild changes in camber of the Beetle-based swing axle suspension. The updated Bus transaxle is usually sought after by off-road racers using air-cooled VW components.

The T2b was introduced by way of gradual change over three years. The 1971 Type 2 featured a new, 1.6 L engine with dual intake ports on each cylinder head and was rated at 50 DIN hp (37 kW). An important change came with the introduction of front disc brakes and new wheels with brake ventilation holes and flatter hubcaps. 1972's most prominent change was a bigger engine compartment to fit the larger 1.7 to 2.0 L engines from the VW Type 4, and a redesigned rear end which eliminated the removable rear apron. The air inlets were also enlarged to accommodate the increased cooling air needs of the larger engines.

This all-new, larger engine is commonly called the Type 4 engine as opposed to the previous Type 1 engine first introduced in the Type 1 Beetle. This engine was called "Type 4" because it was originally designed for the Type 4 (411 and 412) automobiles. They used the "Type 1" engine from the Beetle with minor modifications such as rear mount provisions and different cooling shroud arrangements. The "Type 3" so called "pancake" 1500 and later 1600 cc engines used in Type 3 notchback, fastback and squareback cars, plus the Type 34 Karmann Ghia, were never used in Type 2 vans or buses. The pancake nickname came from its low overall height due to mounting the cooling fan on the end of the crankshaft, a technique later employed for the Type 4 engines. European vans stuck with the upright fan Type 1 1600 engine even after the Type 4 motor became standard for US Type 2 export models.

In the Type 2, the VW Type 4 engine was an option for the 1972 model year onward. This engine was standard in models destined for the US and Canada. Only with the Type 4 engine did an automatic transmission become available for the first time in the 1973 model year. Both engines displaced 1.7 L, rated at 66 DIN hp (49 kW) with the manual transmission and 62 DIN hp (46 kW) with the automatic. The Type 4 engine was enlarged to 1.8 L and 68 DIN hp (50 kW) for the 1974 model year and again to 2.0 L and 70 DIN hp (52 kW) for the 1976 model year. The 1978 2.0 L now featured hydraulic lifters, eliminating the need to periodically adjust the valves as on earlier models. The 1975 and later U.S. model years received Bosch L-Jetronic electronic fuel injection as standard equipment; 1978 was the first year for electronic ignition, utilizing a hall effect sensor and digital controller, eliminating maintenance-requiring breaker points. As with all Transporter engines, the focus in development was not on power, but on low-end torque. The Type 4 engines were considerably more robust and durable than the Type 1 engines, particularly in transporter service.

The year 1973 also saw the most noticeable exterior changes. The front turn indicators were squared off from the previous version and set higher in the front valance, above the headlights. This model year also brought new square-profiled bumpers, which became standard until the end of the T2 in 1979. Crash safety improved greatly with this change due to a compressible structure behind the front bumper. This meant that the T2b was capable of meeting US safety standards for passenger cars of the time, though being vans they were not required to. The only thing that shrunk on the new model, or so it seemed, was the large and distinctive "VW" emblem on the front of the early model.

Later model changes were primarily under the skin. By 1974, the T2 had gained its final shape. Very late in the T2's design life, during the late 1970s, the first prototypes of Type 2 vans with four wheel drive were built and tested.

T2 Hot Wheels

The T2 also has the distinction of being the basis for one of the most sought-after and valuable toys in US history.Fact|date=August 2007 In 1969, Mattel introduced a new model to their line of Hot Wheels die-cast toy cars. This was the "Beach Bomb," a customized Type 2 complete with surfboards. The prototypes had the surfboards placed in the car, sticking out from the rear window. These "Rear Loaders" turned out to have an excessively high center of gravity, making them prone to tip over in banked curves, so the Beach Bomb was completely redesigned. The production model had its body sectioned to reduce height, a counter weight added to its base, and the surfboards were placed inside widened rear fenders to create a lower center of gravity, resulting in the nickname "Side Loader".Only a few dozen of the prototype "Rear Loaders" have survived, with only two of them painted in "Spectraflame Hot Pink". One of these Hot Pink Rearloaders was sold privately in 2000 for $72,000 while the other sold in 2004 for over $50,000.

T2c

The T2c, so called since it got a slightly raised roof — by about 10 cm — in the early 1990s, was built for the South American and Central American markets. The T2c was produced in Mexico until 1991* with the 1.6 L air-cooled Type 1 engine, and from 1991 until 1996 with water-cooled engines from the VW Golf (a VW/Audi 1.4L I4).

Since 1997, the T2c has been built in Brazil with air-cooled engines for the Brazilian market and with water-cooled engines for the Mexican market, the latter easily identified by their large, black-coloured, front-mounted radiators.Since production of the original Beetle was halted in late 2003 as a 2004 model, the T2 remained the only Volkswagen model with the traditional air-cooled, rear-mounted boxer engine when the Brazilian model shifted to water-cooled on December 23, 2005. Previously, the water-cooled T2c was sold in Mexico between 1997 and 2002. There was also a water-cooled Diesel version of the T2, which was manufactured from 1981 to 1985 in Brazil.

The shift to water-cooled engines is in response to Brazil's emission laws which go into effect for 2006 and beyond. The new water-cooled engine will run on petrol as well as alcohol, which costs about 50% less than ordinary fuel in Brazil. The engine is an EA-111 1.4 8v Total Flex. 1390 cc, convert|78|hp|abbr=on on petrol, and convert|80|hp|abbr=on when run on ethanol.

T3

The T3, known as the T25 in Britain and Ireland, and Vanagon in Canada and the US, was built from 1979 to 1991 (or 1992 if one includes the Syncro) and was the third distinct generation of the Type 2. It featured an all-new mechanical design that matched the T2 in length and height, but was wider by 12 cm and considerably heavier. Additional interior space was created by lowering the engine compartment; the rear door is 75% larger than the T2's. The suspension and almost all mechanical components were completely changed, and frontal crash protection was greatly increased. The body was considerably squared-off, though retaining the overall impression of previous versions. Body variants remained the same as before.

Until 1982, the T3 was available with the same air-cooled engines as the T2. Starting in 1981, water-cooled diesel engines were available options and for 1984, water-cooled gasoline boxer engines replaced the previous air-cooled ones.

From 1985, the T3 Syncro represented the first production Type 2 with four-wheel-drive. The Syncro drive system was full-time four-wheel drive, with drive to the front axle controlled by a viscous coupling that delivered power when required. European Syncros were normally fitted with front and rear pneumatically operated differential locks to improve traction. These were not normally fitted to US-spec Vanagons due to fears over product liability.

Flat-4 engine size and performance grew considerably over the T25's production run, from the 1.6 L, 50 DIN hp (37 kW) and 2.0 L, 70 DIN hp (52 kW) air-cooled engines to 1.9 L water-cooled powerplants rated at 60 DIN hp (44 kW) or 78 DIN hp (57 kW) to the top-of the line 2.1 L, 112 DIN hp (82 kW) (95 hp for vans with catalytic converters) fuel-injected version. Likewise, the diesel engine grew to 1.9 L and 65 DIN hp (48 kW). There was a turbodiesel option, but only in 1.6 L, 70 DIN hp (52 kW) trim. The 1.9 L turbodiesel upgrade was not available until the introduction of the T4.

In its home market, the T3 was replaced by the T4 for the 1990 model year, but some Syncro models and vehicles for Deutsche Post and the German military continued to be produced in Graz, Austria until 1992. The last German-built T3s were the very sought-after "Limited Last Edition" models of which 2,500 were built.

Meanwhile, the T3 was still being built in South Africa, with a slightly modified body (larger windows, different ventilation, less room above the engine), fuel-injected four and five-cylinder inline engines and new equipment packages. South African T3 production was halted in 2002.

T4

Since 1990, the Transporter in most world markets has been front-engined and water-cooled, similar to other contemporary Volkswagens. It is quite noteworthy that this happened almost two decades later than it did for the passenger cars, especially since commercial vehicles are usually not purchased for sentimental reasons.

For more details on Volkswagen's front-engined Transporters, see VW Eurovan (US brand name – all types still marketed as Transporter in the UK and Ireland).

T5

The T5 generation has a more aerodynamic design. The angle of the windshield and A-pillar is less; this makes for a large dashboard and small hood.

Additional developments

In 2001, a Volkswagen Microbus Concept was created, with design cues from the T1 generation in a spirit similar to the New Beetle nostalgia movement. VW planned to start selling it in the United States market in 2007, but it was scrapped in May 2004 and replaced with a more cost-effective design to be sold worldwide.

In 2006, the Brazilian branch of Volkswagen AG started selling a VW Bus with a new 1.4L water-cooled rear-mounted engine. This marks the end of the Brazilian air-cooled engine era. The "new" VW Bus (called "Kombi" in Brazil) uses the old generation T2 body. Many people will agree that the old style Volkswagen is more popular amongst the general public.

Names and nicknames

Like the Beetle, from the beginning, the Type 2 earned many nicknames from its fans. Among the most popular, at least in Germany, are VW-Bus and Bulli (or Bully) or Hippie-van or the bus. The Type 2 was meant to be officially named the "Bully", but Heinrich Lanz, producer of the Lanz Bulldog farm tractor, intervened. The model was then presented as the "VW Transporter" and "VW Kleinbus", but the "Bully" nickname still caught on.

The official German-language model names "Transporter" and "Kombi" ("Kombinationskraftwagen", "combined-use vehicle") have also caught on as nicknames. Kombi is not only the name of the passenger variant, but is also the Australasian and Brazilian term for the whole Type 2 family in much the same way that they are all called "VW-Bus" in Germany – even the pickup truck variations. In Mexico, the German "Kombi" was translated as "Combi", and became a household word thanks to the vehicle's popularity in Mexico City's public transportation system. In Peru, where the term Combi was similarly adopted, the term "Combi Asesina" (Murdering Combi) is often used for buses of similar size, due to the notorious recklessness and competition of Lima bus drivers to get passengers. The Portuguese people also have a particular name for it: they name it "Pão-de-Forma" (Breadloaf) because its design resembles a bread baked in a mold. Similarly, in Denmark, the Type 2 is referred to as "Rugbrød" (Rye bread). Finns dubbed it "Kleinbus" (mini-bus), as many taxicab companies adopted it for group transportation; the name "kleinbus" has become an appellative for all passenger vans.

In America, however, it is a VW bus, a "vee-dub," a hippie-mobile, hippie bus, or hippie van, "combie", Microbus or a Transporter to aficionados. The early versions produced before 1967 used a split front windshield (giving rise to the nickname "Splitty"), and their comparative rarity has led to their becoming sought after by collectors and enthusiasts. The next version, sold in the USA market from 1968 to 1979, is characterised by a large, curved windshield and is commonly called a "bay-window". It was replaced by the Vanagon, of which only the Westfalia camper version has a common nickname, "Westy".

It was called "Volksie Bus" in South Africa, notable in a series of that country's TV commercials. "Kombi" is also a generic nickname for vans and minibuses in South Africa.

In the United Kingdom, it is known as a "Campervan","hippy van" and "vdub".

References in popular culture

Music

*Men at Work's 1981-82 hit "Down Under" refers to "Traveling in a fried-out Kombi, On a hippie trail, head full of zombie." The official video features a Kombi at the start.
*C. W. McCall's hit "Convoy" the truckers are joined by "eleven long-haired friends of Jesus in a chartreuse microbus" who are positioned behind a "suicide jockey" for good luck.
*Red Simpson's hit "I'm a Truck" refers to a "Volkswagen bus full of hippies".
*Before it spawned the movie of the same name (see below), Arlo Guthrie's song "Alice's Restaurant" was released in 1967. It mentioned a "red VW Microbus" filled with "shovels, rakes, and implements of destruction."
*Bruce Springsteen's song "The Angel," from his 1973 album Greetings From Asbury Park, N.J., mentions "Volkswagen vans with full running boards driving great anchors."
*Dean Friedman's Ariel mentions "my new VW Van".
*Sublime's cover of the Grateful Dead's "Scarlet Begonias" from 40 oz. to Freedom mentions that the lead singer drives a microbus.
*The first song on Fairport Convention's 2007 Sense of Occasion album, entitled "Turning the Wheel", described the history and nostalgia surrounding an 1960s Volkswagen campervan. Several pictures of the band posed in or around a blue Volkswagen Type 2 were included in the CD booklet.
*In Blink 182's "First Date" music video, Mark Hoppus' character, Spaulding, lives in his VW bus and has many adventures with his friends Boomer - Tom DeLonge and Travis - Travis Barker.
*Brazilian band Raimundos' song "Pitando no Kombão" talks about a group of friends who usually band together in a VW van to have a good time, smoking marijuana, playing guitar and rolling around the town.
*"Boogie de la Combi" By Charly Montana (Mexican punk rock) was written about a regular VW Kombi that is used for public transportation in Mexico City and its Adventures.
* Bob Dylan's 1963 album 'The Freewheelin'" has a blue VW bus on the cover

Film

The VW Bus was a regular player in many 1960s and 1970s movies, and afterwards as an icon for the counterculture era:

*A first-generation VW bus plays a supporting role in the 1967 film Wait Until Dark starring Audrey Hepburn and Alan Arkin.
*Arlo Guthrie's 1969 film "Alice's Restaurant" has numerous long sequences involving his red 1964 VW camper bus.
*In the 2006 Pixar movie "Cars", the hippie van Fillmore(voiced by George Carlin) is a VW Type 2.
*Steve Jobs, the CEO and founder of Pixar, sold his VW Type 2 to finance what would become Apple Computer. [http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2006/03/26/MNG7EHUEQ51.DTL APPLE TURNS 30: The man behind the Mac] SF Gate]
*The second Dirty Harry film, "Magnum Force", a Bus was t-boned in the film (Eastwood is seen driving a 1972 Ford Galaxie 500 - the car is later blown up by the film's end).
*The 1972 comedy film "What's Up, Doc?" featured a first generation Bus which is rammed several times.
*In the movie "Ronin" there is a military green Type 2 transporting the characters around.
*Ray Kinsella (played by Kevin Costner) drives cross country in a second generation VW Bus to kidnap Terence Mann (played by James Earl Jones) in the 1989 film Field of Dreams
*The movie "Little Miss Sunshine" centers around a family road trip from New Mexico to California in a yellow second-generation Bus.
* In the movie "Back to the Future" there is a blue VW Bus used by Libyan terrorist to chase the professor and his modified DeLorean/time machine. A yellow VW bus is also seen parked near the McFly house at the end of the movie.
* Jeff Spicoli and his stoner friends were "hot boxing" in an orange VW bus in "Fast Times at Ridgemont High".
* The 1992 Robert Redford film "Sneakers" features a split screen Microbus in the opening sequence involving the two computer whizz kids. Perhaps a reference to Stephen Jobs?
* Actor Christopher Walken's character drove a Type 2 Bus in 2005's "Around the Bend".
* In the film 'Almost Famous' there are many split-screen buses and utes seen around the streets and at the concerts with stillwater
* In the movie "Delta Force", Chuck Norris' character rode a VW Bus, driven by a sympathetic Orthodox priest while being chased by terrorists in Beirut.
* In the last part of "Jackie Brown" a shoting takes place in a bus.

Television

*Type 2s have been included in both "Pimp My Ride US" (Ryan's '58 Bus in Series 2) and "Pimp My Ride UK" (Zoë's '67 Camper and Jono's Bay Window Pick up in Series 2).
*In the eighth series of Top Gear, Richard Hammond converted a Volkswagen Type 2 T3 to be amphibious, adding modifications to transform it into a houseboat. However, when attempting to cross the reservoir, the "Dampervan" broke its propellor on the entry ramp and eventually sank. In Series 10 Hammond converted a second T3, modeling it after a cabin cruiser. While at first the second "Dampervan" did float upon entering Dover Harbour, it suffered significant structural and engine damage when it encountered rough waves outside the harbour entrance, which led to its sinking when Hammond attempted to cross the English Channel the next day.
*In the Doctor Who episode, Gridlock, thousands of Type 2-like hovering vans are seen trapped on a Motorway, some having been in the constant traffic jam, upwards of 20 years.
*A Type 2 made its appearance in one of Futurama's episode "Bendin' in the Wind" and was a key part of the episode and was referred to as "Free spirited German engineering".
*An Episode of "Law & Order," entitled "Ramparts" (Episode Number: 192, Season Num: 9), involves a VW Bus being dredged from the Hudson River near the George Washington Bridge with the 30-year old remains of a corpse inside.
*A blue Type 2, T3 appeared in an episode of Sliders as the main characters' getaway vehicle.
*In "Dharma & Greg", Dharma's parents drive a T2.
*A Type 2 bus is seen in "Lost" season 3. It is found on the island by Hurley & Vincent the dog. Instead of the large VW sign on the front, it holds the Dharma Initiative logo in its place. The bus is two tone, being blue and white in colour. It is also very rusty and has the rotting body of the original driver, Roger, inside. Sawyer reefers to it as a "hippie bus."
*In some episodes of "That '70s Show", Kelso owns a T2 bus built as a making out place.
*A black 1966 Double cab, the personal vehicle of presenter Jamie Hyneman, featured in many of the Series 2 of the Discovery Channel Mythbusters TV show.
*In Power Rangers Ninja Storm, Tori can be seen driving a two tone blue/white VW Bus in several episodes of the series. The VW emblem on the front was removed, possibly due to copyright issues.
*A type 2 bus is driven by Rain Robinson in the Star Trek: Voyager episode Future's end Part 1 and 2.
* In the opening of Mystery Science Theatre 3000 television show , Pearl is seen driving a VW bus through outer space.
* The Australian television series "Ask the Leyland Brothers" featured baywindow VW Campers in the first series. These were not WESTFALIA conversions but were manufactured by Volkswagen Australia's locally appointed conversion company and were "official" VW products.
* The 2008 series of "Big Brother Australia" features a stationary type 2 in the backyard as a "chill out" zone. Before his eviction, housemate Nobbi was banished from entering the house and had to make the van his new home.
* The type 2 bus is frequently driven in the second series of UK TV programme Auf Wiedersehen Pet
* In that 70s show 'Vanstock' a red bay window is seen on the set.
* In the Australian comedy 'Lano and Woodley' a white bay window kombi is seen outside of the flat in many of the long shots
* Since 2006, an Australian advertisement for Telstra Bigpond featured a sky blue split window Kombi,
* In the sci-fi show Stargate SG-1, episode 1969. The team travels back to 1969, and gets a ride from two hippies (in the car) to New York.
* In 2008 Smiletelevision launched on Freeview with the presenters turning up in a T2 microbus.

Video games

*Tony Hawk Pro Skater level San Francisco has a green Microbus driving the streets.
*The Type 2 is an unlockable car in the game Midtown Madness 2.
*The Type 2 is an unlockable car in the game GTi Racing, and it is modifiable, with a range of things such as new body parts and turbochargers.
*In the first incarnation of Grand Theft Auto, a vehicle known as the Love Wagon is modeled after the Type 2.
*Vehicles known as Campers in the video game are based on the Type 2. The character Truth, a hippie, has a Camper painted in a hippy-style called "The Mothership".
*A Type 2-like van is also driveable in the video game San Francisco Rush.
*Two games of the Driver video game series featured vehicles based on the Type 2: Driver 2 with yellow realistic vans, and Driv3r with a vehicle realistically modeled painted hippie-style which is an unlockable car.
*The "Hippy Van" can be found on the streets of Miami in .
*In the Game "TG Dare Devil", T1 Pickups can be seen driving around.
*This van and its pickup truck version are playable vehicles in GTI Racer.
*This van flew to Mars in LucasArts Zak McCracken and the Alien Mindbenders.
*A Van based Type 2 is often found at Fringe community in the video game City Life

References

ee also

*Volkswagen Transporter
*Splitscreen
*Dymaxion car

External links


*


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