List of Romanesque architecture

List of Romanesque architecture

urviving Romanesque buildings

Listed below are examples of surviving buildings in Romanesque style in Europe.

France

Romanesque architecture expands in France through monasteries. Burgundy was the center of monastic life in France - one of the most important Benedictine monastery of medieval Europe was the one in Cluny. The pilgrimage also contributed to expansion of this style. Many pilgrims passed through France on their way to Santiago de Compostela.

French Romanesque schools of architecture, which are specific for every region, are characterised by the variety of stone vaulting.
*Regions that developed distinctive styles are:

*Burgundy
**abbey church, Cluny
** Saint-Bénigne, Dijon
** Autun
** St Philibert at Tournus

*Provence
** Church of St. Trophime and cloister, Arles
** Tour Fenestrelle, Uzès
** Abbey of Sénanque, Gordes
** Le Thoronet Abbey, Brignoles
** Fréjus Cathedral, Frejus
** Silvacane Abbey, La Roque-d'Anthéron
** Montmajour Abbey, Arles

*Aquitaine
** Saint-Front, Périgueux
** Notre-Dame-la-Grande, Poitiers
** Saint-Pierre, Angoulême
** Sainte-Croix, Bordeaux

*Auvergne
**Saint-Foy, Conques
**Saint-Sernin, Toulouse
**Notre-Dame-du-Port, Clermont-Ferrand
** Saint-Austremoine, Issoire
** Notre-Dame, Orcival

*Normandy
**Saint-Étienne, Caen,
**abbey church, Jumièges, Seine-Maritime
**abbey church of Saint-Georges-de-Boscherville, Seine-Maritime
**Sainte-Trinité, Caen, Calvados Calvados
**Cerisy-la-Forêt, Manche
**Lessay, Manche

* Saint-Nectaire
* Saint-Saturnin
* Sainte-Madeleine, Vezelay
* Paray-le-Monial
* Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe
* Chapaize
* Abbatiale de Cruas
* Abbey of Vigeois, Limousin
* Fontevraud Abbey
* Saint-Martin-du-Canigou, Roussillon

pain

Romanesque first developed in Spain in the 10th and 11th centuries and before Cluny`s influence, in Lérida, Barcelona, Tarragona and Huesca and in the Pyrinees, simultaneously with the north of Italy, into what has been called "First Romanesque" or "Lombard Romanesque". It is a very primitive style, whose characteristics are thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches.

Romanesque architecture truly arrives with the influence of Cluny through the Way of Saint James, that ends in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. The model of the Spanish Romanesque in 12th century was the Cathedral of Jaca, with its characteristic apse structure and plan, and its "chess" decoration in strips, called "taqueado jaqués". As the Christian kingdoms advanced to the South, that model spread throughout the reconquered areas with some variations. Spanish Romanesque has also influence of the Spanish pre-Romanesque styles, mainly the Asturian and the Mozarab. But there is also a strong influence of the moorish architecture, so close in space, especially the vaults of Córdoba`s Mosque, and the polylobulated arches. In the 13th century, some Romanesque churches alternated with the Gothic. Aragón, Castile and Navarra are some of the most dense areas of Spanish Romanesque.

* Basílica de San Isidoro, with "Kings' Pantheon" León
* Zamora [http://www.romanicozamorano.com/zamora/zamora/catedral_Salvador/catedral_zamora1.htm] Cathedral
* Zamora [http://www.romanicozamorano.com/zamora/romzam/romanico_zamora.htm] City of romanesque art.
* Benavente: Church of Santa María del Azogue
* Salamanca Old Cathedral
* [Real Monasterio de Nuestra Senora de Rueda, Aragon region
* Monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos
* Toro [http://www.romanicozamorano.com/zamora/toro/colegiata/colegiata_toro1.htm] Santa María la Mayor, Collegiate Church
* Ávila, Church of San Vicente
* Soria Santo Domingo
* Carrión de los Condes Church of Santiago
* Carrión de los Condes Church of Santa María de las Victorias
* San Juan de Ortega Church
* Aguilar de Campoo Church of Santa Cecilia
* Aguilar de Campoo Santa María la Real, Monastery
* Arenillas de San Pelayo Church of San Pelayo
* Barrio de Santa María Church of Santa Eulalia
* Cillamayor Church of Santa María la Real
* San Martín, Frómista
* Olmos de Ojeda Church of Santa Eufemia
* San Salvador de Cantamuda Collegiate Church
* Soria San Juan de Duero, Cloister
* Arbás Church
* A lot of rural romanesque churches of northern Burgos and Palencia
* The 20 romanesque churches of Segovia
* Duratón La Asunción de María, church
* Fuentidueña Church of San Miguel
* Grado del Pico Church of San Pedro
* Perorrubio Church of San Pedro
* Requijada Church of Virgen de las Vegas
* San Pedro de Gaillos Church
* Sepúlveda Church of San Salvador
* Estella San Pedro de la Rúa. Church and cloister.
* Estella Church of San Miguel
* Estella Palace of the Kings of Navarra
* Torres del Río Church of Santo Sepulcro
* Monastery of Leyre (San Salvador de Leyre) Abbey
* Sangüesa Church of Santa María la Real
* Santillana del Mar Collegiate Church and cloister
* Jaca Cathedral
* Loarre castle
* San Juan de la Peña
*Churches of San Caprasio and Saint Mary in Santa Cruz de la Serós
* Rural early romanesque churches of Serrablo Huesca
* Sant Climent de Taüll, Vall de Boí
* Sant Miquel de Cuixà, Empordà
* Tarragona Cathedral Cloister
* Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll
* Terrassa Churches of Saint Mary (old Cathedral), Saint Peter and Saint Michael
* Lugo Cathedral
* Santiago de Compostela Cathedral
* Santiago de Compostela Gelmirez Palace
* Santiago de Compostela Santa María del Sar (Colegiata)
* La Coruña Church of Santiago
* La Coruña Collegiate Church of Santa María del Campo
* Noia Church of San Martiño
* Cathedral, Ourense, Romanesque and Gothic
* Church of San Juan of Portomarín
* Vilar de Donas, Monastery
* Sarria, Church
* Barbadelo, Church

Poland

*Kujawy
** Benedictine Abbey in Mogilno
** St. Peter and Paul-Collegiate in Kruszwica
** St. Mary-Church in Inowrocław
** St. Margaret Church in Kościelec Kujawski

*Łódzkie
** St. Giles-Church in Inowłódz
** Church and campanile in Krzyworzeka
** Cistercians Abbey in Sulejów
** St. Ursula-Church in Strońsko
** St. Nicholas Church in Żarnów

*Małopolska
** St. Andrew's Church in Kraków
** St. Adalbert Church in Kraków
** St. Leonard Crypt in Wawel, Kraków
** St. Nicholas Church in Wysocice
** St. John the Baptist church in Prandocin

*Mazowsze
** Masovian Blessed Virgin Mary Cathedral in Płock
** Abbey church in Czerwińsk nad Wisłą
** Collegiate church in Tum

*Lubelszczyzna
** Dungeon in Lublin Castle

*Śląsk
** Saint Godehard-Rotunda in Strzelin
** St. Giles-Church in Wrocław
** St. Nicolaus-Rotunda in Cieszyn
** Castle in Będzin
** Blessed Virgin Mary-Church in Lwówek Śląski
** Blessed Virgin Mary church in Złotoryja
** South part and ruins of the chapel in Piast Castle in Legnica
** Blessed Virgin Mary church in Środa Śląska
** St. John the Baptist church in Siewierz

*Świętokrzyskie
** St. Martin-Collegiate in Opatów
** St. Jacob-Church in Sandomierz
** St. Florian-Church in Koprzywnica
** Cistercians Abbey in Wąchock
** St. Giles-Church in Tarczek
** St. John the Baptist-Church in Grzegorzowice
** St. John the Baptist church in Skalbmierz

*Wielkopolska
** St. Trinity-Church in Strzelno
** St. Prokop-Rotunda in Strzelno
** St. Nicolaus-Church in Giecz
** Romanesque doors in Gniezno Cathedral
** Church of St. John from Jerusalem Outside the Walls in Poznań
** Born of Blessed Virgin Mary Church in Kotłów

*Zachodniopomorskie
** Knights Templar chapel in Rurka
** Knights Templar chapel in Chwarszczany
** Cistercians Abbey in Kołbacz

*Ziemia Lubuska
** Blessed Virgin Mary Church in Lubsko
** Church in Biedrzychowice
** St. Andrew's Church in Szprotawa

Croatia

[http://branimir.com/photos/zadar/donat/] St. Anastasia, Zadar
*St. Benedict, Split
*St. Peter, Rab
*St. Mary the Blessed, Rab

Ireland

* Cormac's Chapel, Cashel (1127-1134)
* Aghadoe, County Kerry (1158)
* Nuns' Church, Clonmacnoise (1167)
* Tuam Cathedral and Crosses (c. 1184)
* Ardmore Church and Round Tower, County Waterford
* Baltinglass Cistercian Abbey, County Wicklow
* Boyle Cistercian Abbey, County Roscommon
* Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin
* Clonfert Cathedral, County Galway
* Cong Abbey, County Galway
* Devenish Round Tower and Churches, County Fermanagh
* Dysert O'Dea Church and Round Tower, County Clare
* Freshford, County Kilkenny
* Jerpoint Cistercian Abbey, County Kilkenny
* Killeshin, County Laois
* Maghera, County Londonderry
* Monaincha Abbey and Cross, County Tipperary
* Rahan Church of Ireland Church, County Offaly
* Timahoe Round Tower, County Laois
* St. Saviour's, Glendalough

Germany

* Bamberg Cathedral
* Bonn Münster
* Cologne, numerous Romanesque churches include Gross St Martin, St Maria im Kaptol with fine wooden doors, the central plan St Gereon, St Aposteln, St Pantaleon
* Freising, Cathedral
* Goslar, Emperor's Palace
* Hildesheim: Cathedral and St. Michael's Church.
* Mainz, St. Martin - Mainz Cathedral
* Maria Laach Abbey
* Regensburg, Schottenkirche St. Jakob
* Trier Cathedral
* Speyer Cathedral
* Straubing, St. Peter
* Worms, Worms Cathedral
* Würzburg, Cathedral

Austria

* Gurk Cathedral, Gurk, Carinthia
* Ossiach Abbey, Ossiach, Carinthia
* Virgilkapelle, Vienna
* Benedictine Abbey, Millstatt, Carinthia
* Stiftskirche, Geras, Lower Austria
* Stiftskirche, Göß, Leoben, Styria
* Lambach Abbey
* Schöngrabern, Hollabrunn, Lower Austria

Netherlands

* Basilica of Saint Servatius, Maastricht (English:Saint Servaes)
* Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe, Maastricht (Church of Our Lady)
* Munsterkerk, Roermond
* Janskerk, Utrecht (Saint John's Church)
* Pieterskerk, Utrecht (Saint Peters Church)
* St. Plechelmus, Oldenzaal (Saint Plecholmus Church)
* Chapel, Lemiers (Chapel)
* Reformed church, Oirschot
* Abbey church Rolduc, Kerkrade
* St. Amelberga, Susteren
* St. Wiro, Plechelmus and Otgerus, Sint-Odiliënberg
* St. Remigius, Klimmen

Italy

In Italy, the prevalent diffusion is in Lombardy, in Emilia - Romagna, in Tuscany, in the continental part of Veneto and in Apulia; everyone of these "Romanesque styles" has proper characteristics, for constructing methods and for materials. For example, a characteristic of Romanesque is that to change the classic elements with Christian elements, but in Tuscany and Apulia the classic decoratings remain.

Materials depended from the local disponibility, because the importation was too expensive. In fact, in Lombardy the most used material is ceramic, because of the argillous nature of the terrain; but that isn't true for Como, where there were large diponibility of stone; in Tuscany buildings in white marble (from Carrara) are frequent, with inserts of green serpentin marble.

In Lombardy and Emilia, in that age united, in romanesque epoque there was a great artistic flowering. The most monumental churches and cathedrals are often built with the "campata" system, with varying columns which weigh "a tutto sesto arco"s. In plain the material of construction is prevalently the mattone, but buildings in stone do not lack. The greater part of the roman cities along the via Emilia is equipped in this age of monumental cathedral, between which they already maintain to the medieval system.

Abruzzo
*San Clemente a Casauria
*San Liberatore a Maiella
*Santa Maria Arabona
*Sant'Antimo Abbey

Aosta Valley
* Cathedral of Aosta
* Chiesa di S. Orso (Aosta)

Emilia-Romagna
* Cathedral of Modena
* San Mercuriale, in Forlì
* Chiesa di S. Maria Oliveto (Albinea - province of Reggio Emilia)
* Chiesa parrocchiale (Anzola dell'Emilia - province of Bologna)
* Cathedral of Parma

Friuli-Venezia Giulia
* Basilica di Poppo, Aquileia, province of Udine
* Basilica patriarcale, Aquileia - province of Udine

Latium
* Chiesa cattedrale (Acquapendente - province of Viterbo)
* Chiesa di S. Maria della Libera (Aquino - province of Frosinone)

Lombardy
* Sant'Ambrogio, Milan
*San Lorenzo, Milan
* San Michele Maggiore, Pavia
* Cathedral of Monza
* S. Cosma e Damiano (Rezzago - province of Como)
* Madonna del Ghisallo (Magreglio - province of Como)
* S. Alessandro (Lasnigo - province of Como)
* S. Pietro (Albese - province of Como)
* Chiesa di S. Tommaso (Acquanegra sul Chiese - province of Mantova)
* Sant'Abbondio (Como)
* San Tomè (Almenno San Bartolomeo - province of Bergamo)

Marche
* Chiesa di S. Ciriaco (Ancona)
* Pieve di S. Maria della Piazza (Ancona)
* Pieve di S. Urbano (Apiro - province of Macerata)
*San Vittore alle Chiuse

Piedmont
* Abbazia di Vezzolano (Albugnano - province of Asti)
* Cripta di Sant'Anastasio (Asti)
* Pieve di San Secondo (Cortazzone - province of Asti)
* Chiesa SS. Nazario e Celso (Montechiaro - province of Asti)
* Pieve di San Lorenzo (Montiglio - province of Asti)
* Abbazia dei Santi Nazario e Celso (San Nazzaro Sesia - province of Novara)
* Abbazia di Santa Fede (Cavagnolo - province of Tourin)
* Chiesa di S. Maria di Vezzolano (Abbazia di Vezzolano - province of Asti)
* Cattedrale dell'Addolorata (Acqui Terme - province of Alessandria)
* Chiesa di S. Pietro (Albugnano - province of Asti)
* Battistero di Agrate (Agrate Conturbia - province of Novara)

Puglia
* Basilica of San Nicola, Bari
* Cathedral of Bitonto
* Cathedral of Trani

Sardinia
* S. Giusta (S. Giusta)
* S. Maria (Bonarcado)
* S. Paolo (Milis)
* S. Palmerio (Ghilarza)
* Il Carmine (Mogoro)
* S. Gregorio (Sardara)
* S. Leonardo (Masullas)
* S. Lussorio (Fordongianus)
* S. Gregorio (Solarussa)
* S. Pietro (Zuri - Sardinia
* S. Maria Maddalena (Silì)
* S. Maria della Mercede (Norbello)
* S. Pietro di Sorres (Borutta)
*Santissima Trinità di Saccargia
* S. Antioco (Bisarcio)
* S. Maria del Regno (Ardara)
* S. Pantaleo (Dolianova)
* S. Alenixedda (Cagliari)
* S. Lorenzo (Silanus)
* S. Leonardo (Siete Fuentes)
* S. Maria (Uta)
* S. Maria (Tratalias)
* S. Pietro Extramuros (Bosa)
* S. Gavino (Porto Torres)

Sicily
* Cathedral, Cefalù

Tuscany
* San Miniato al Monte, Florence
* Pisa Cathedral
*San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno, Pisa
*Santa Maria della Pieve, Arezzo
* Sant'Ambrogio, Florence
* Pieve di Romena, Pratovecchio, Arezzo
* Pieve di Làmulas (Arcidosso - province of Grosseto)
* Chiesa abbaziale (Abbadia Isola - province of Siena)
* Chiesa abbaziale (Abbadia San Salvatore - province of Siena)
* Abbazia di S. Galgano (Abbazia di San Galgano - province of Siena)
* Oratorio of Alpe di Poti, province of Arezzo
* Chiesa di S. Jacopo Maggiore (Altopascio - province of Lucca)
* Chiesa di S. Stefano (Anghiari - province of Arezzo)

Umbria
*Cathedral of Spoleto
* Chiesa di San Bernardino da Siena (La Pigge - Trevi - province of Perugia)
* Chiesa di Sant'Arcangelo (La Pigge - Trevi - province of Perugia)
* Eremo di San Marco e la grotta del Beato Ventura (La Pigge - Trevi - province of Perugia)
* Chiesa Tonda (La Pigge - Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Maria di Pietrarossa (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Stefano di Piaggia (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Nicolò (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Fabiano (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Tommaso (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Sabino (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Pietro a Pettine (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Costanzo (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Andrea (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Egidio di Borgo (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Donato (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Leonardo del Colle (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Martino in Manciano (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Apollinare (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Stefano in Manciano (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Pietro in Bovara (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Maria di Pelan (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Paolo di Coste (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Croce in Val dell'Aquila (Trevi - province of Perugia)
* S. Emiliano (Trevi - province of Perugia)

Veneto
* San Zeno, Verona
* S. Pietro in Cantalovo (Bevilacqua, province of Verona)
* S.Salvaro (S. Pietro di Legnago, province of Verona)
* S. Zeno (Cerea - province of Verona)
* Chiesa della Bastia (Isola della Scala - province of Verona)
* Santa Maria Maggiore (Gazzo, province of Verona)
* S. Pietro (Villanova - province of Verona)
* S. Maria (Bonavigo - province of Verona)
* S. Michele (Belfiore - province of Verona)
* S. Andrea (Sommacampagna - province of Verona)
* Basilica di Santa Maria Assunta (Adria - Province of Rovigo)
* Cattedrale di Adria (Adria - Province of Rovigo)

Portugal

* Old Cathedral of Coimbra (begun 1162)
* Lisbon Cathedral (begun 1147. Romanesque portals and nave)
* Oporto Cathedral (begun in the first half of 12th century. Romanesque nave)
* Braga Cathedral (begun in the first half of 12th century. Romanesque portals and nave)
* Round church in the Convent of the Order of Christ in Tomar (XII century, built by the Knights Templar)
* Castle of Almourol (built after 1160 by the Knights Templar)
* Church of Cedofeita in Oporto (second half of 12th century)
* Domus Municipalis, Bragança [http://www.romanicozamorano.com/portugal/bragan%E7a/bragan%E7a/domus_municipalis/domus_municipalis.htm]

England

In England, Romanesque architecture is often termed 'Norman architecture'. Castles, cathedrals and churches of the Norman period have frequently been extended during later periods. It is normal to find Norman in combination with Gothic architecture.

* Durham Cathedral is regarded as the finest Norman building in England and is sometimes cited as the finest Romanesque building in the world.
* Peterborough Cathedral is an intact Norman cathedral except for the early Gothic west front and late Gothic eastern ambulatory.
* Ely Cathedral: the nave is Norman and west front Norman and Transitional
* Norwich Cathedral, excluding the Gothic spire and vault
* Canterbury Cathedral: the crypt, chapels and two small towers remain from the previous building destroyed by fire.
* Hereford Cathedral
* Southwell Minster
* St Albans Cathedral
* Gloucester cathedral, the nave arcades
* Tewkesbury abbey church
* Rochester Cathedral
* St Bartholomew-the-Great, Smithfield, London
* Patrixbourne Church, Kent
* Barfrestone Church, Kent
* Tixover church
* Bradford Church of St. Chad, West Yorkshire
* Kilpeck Church
* Leominster Priory
* Oakham castle hall, a unique survival in England of the hall of a Norman fortified manor house
* Tower of London: the keep known as the White Tower
* Norwich Castle
* Ludlow Castle
* Rochester Castle, Kent

cotland

* Dunnottar Castle, older portions as Romanesque
* Muchalls Castle, ground level groin vault course only
* Myres Castle, undercroft only survives as Romaneseque
* St. Margaret's Chapel in Edinburgh Castle

lovakia

* Spišská Kapitula, an ecclesiastical town with a Romanesque cathedral

witzerland

*Abbey of Romainmôtier
*Church of Saint-Sulpice, Vaud
*Grossmünster Church, Zurich
*Payerne

Belgium

* Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai (Doornik)
* abbey in Nivelles (Nijvel)

candinavia

* Lund Cathedral, Lund
* Nidaros Cathedral, Trondheim

Czech Republic

* Rotunda of St. Longin, in Prague
* Rotunda of The Holy Cross (Svatý Kříž) , in Prague
* Basilica of St. George (Jiří), in Prague Castle
* Church of St. Bartholomew (Bartoloměj), in Prague-Kyje
* Rotunda of St. George (Jiří) in The Říp Mountain
* Castle with rotunda in Týnec nad Sázavou
* St. Peter and Paul (Petr a Pavel) Church, in Poříčí nad Sázavou
* St. Jacob (Jakub) Church, in Jakub-Cirkvice, near Kutná Hora
* St. Procopius Basilica in Třebíč

Hungary

* Calvinist church, Ócsa (e. 13 th.c)
* Parish church of the Annunciation of Our Lady, Türje (e. 13 th.c)
* Parish church of St. James the Apostle, Lébény (c. 1190-1212)
* Parish church of St. George, Ják (c. 1220-1256)
* Abbey Church of the Assumption of Our Lady, Belapatfalva (1232-1246)


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