- Radius of curvature (applications)
The distance from the center of a

sphere orellipsoid to its surface is itsradius . The equivalent "surface radius" that is described by radial distances at points along the body's surface is its**radius of curvature**(more formally, the**radius of curvature**of a curve at a point is the radius of theosculating circle at that point).With a sphere, the radius of curvature equals the radius. With an oblate ellipsoid (or, more properly, an oblate spheroid), however, not only does it differ from the radius, but it varies, depending on the direction being faced. The extremes are known as the "principal radii of curvature".**Explanation**Imagine driving a car on a curvy road on a completely flat plain (so that the geographic plain is a geometric plane). At any one point along the way, lock the steering wheel in its position, so that the car thereafter follows a perfect circle. The car will, or course, deviate from the road, unless the road is also a perfect circle. The radius of that circle the car makes is the radius of curvature of the curvy road at the point at which the steering wheel was locked. The more sharply curved the road is at the point you locked the steering wheel, the smaller the radius of curvature.

**Formula**If $gamma\; :\; mathbb\{R\}\; ightarrow\; mathbb\{R\}^n$ is a parameterized curve in $mathbb\{R\}^n$ then the radius of curvature at each point of the curve, $ho\; :\; mathbb\{R\}\; ightarrow\; mathbb\{R\}$, is given by

:$ho\; =\; frac\{sqrt\{|gamma\text{\'}^2(t)|\; ;\; |gamma"^2(t)|\; -\; (gamma\text{\'}(t)\; cdot\; gamma"(t))^2$

or, omitting the parameter ("t") for readability,

:$ho\; =\; frac\{|gamma\text{\'}|^3\}\{sqrt\{|gamma\text{\'}|^2\; ;\; |gamma"|^2\; -\; (gamma\text{\'}\; cdot\; gamma")^2$.

**Elliptic, latitudinal components**The radius extremes of an oblate spheroid are the equatorial radius, or

semi-major axis , "a", and the polar radius, orsemi-minor axis , "b". The "ellipticalness" of any ellipsoid, like any ellipse, is measured in different ways (e.g., eccentricity andflattening ), any and all of which are trigonometric functions of its "angular eccentricity ", $o!varepsilon,!$::$egin\{matrix\}\{\}\_\{color\{white\}.\}\backslash o!varepsilon=arccos!left(frac\{b\}\{a\}\; ight)=2arctan!left(sqrt\{frac\{a-b\}\{a+b,\; ight).\backslash \{\}^\{color\{white\}.\}end\{matrix\},!$

The primary parameter utilized in identifying a point's vertical position is its

.A latitude can be expressed either directly or from the arcsine of a trigonometric product, the "arguments" (i.e., a function's "input") of the factors being thelatitude **arc path**(which defines, and is the azimuth at the equator of, a given, or its elliptical counterpart) and thegreat circle **transverse colatitude**, which is a corresponding, vertical latitude ring that defines a point along an arc path/great circle. The relationship can be remembered by the terms' initial letter, L-A-T::::$sin(\backslash boldsymbol\{L\})=cos(\backslash boldsymbol\{A\})sin(\backslash boldsymbol\{T\}).,!$

Therefore, along a north-south arc path (which equals 0°), the primary quadrant form of latitude equals the transverse colatitude's at a given point.As most introductory discussions of curvature and their radius identify position in terms of latitude, this article will too, with only the added inclusion of a "0" placeholder for more advanced discussions where the arc path is actively utilized: $F(L)\; ightarrow\; F(0,L)=F(A,T).,!$There are two types of latitude commonly employed in these discussions, the planetographic (or planetodetic; for Earth, the customized terms are "**"ge**"ographic" and "**"ge**"odetic") and reduced latitudes, $phi,!$ and $eta!$ (respectively)::$egin\{matrix\}\{\}\_\{color\{white\}.\}\backslash eta=arctan(cos(o!varepsilon)\; an(phi));\backslash \backslash phi=arctan(sec(o!varepsilon)\; an(eta)).\backslash \{\}^\{color\{white\}.\}end\{matrix\},!$

The calculation of elliptic quantities usually involves different

elliptic integral s, the most basic integrands being $E\text{'}(0,L),!$ and its complement, $C\text{'}(0,L),!$::$egin\{matrix\}\{\}\_\{color\{white\}.\}\backslash E\text{'}(0,phi)=C\text{'}(0,frac\{pi\}\{2\}-phi)!!=!!!!!!asqrt\{1-(cos(0)sin(phi)sin(o!varepsilon))^2\},\backslash \backslash qquad=quadfrac\{ab\}\{C\text{'}(0,eta)\}!!!=!!asqrt\{cos^2(o!varepsilon)+(cos(phi)sin(o!varepsilon))^2\},\backslash \backslash =!!!!!!!!sqrt\{(acos(phi))^2+(bsin(phi))^2\},qquad\backslash \backslash =!!!!!!!!absqrt\{left(frac\{sin(phi)\}\{a\}\; ight)^2+left(frac\{cos(phi)\}\{b\}\; ight)^2\};qquad\backslash \{\}^\{color\{white\}.\}end\{matrix\},!$

:$egin\{matrix\}\{\}\_\{color\{white\}.\}\backslash C\text{'}(0,eta)=E\text{'}(0,frac\{pi\}\{2\}-eta)!!=!!asqrt\{cos^2(o!varepsilon)+(cos(0)sin(eta)sin(o!varepsilon))^2\},\backslash \backslash qquad=quadfrac\{ab\}\{E\text{'}(0,phi)\}!!!=!!!!!!!asqrt\{1-(cos(eta)sin(o!varepsilon))^2\},qquadqquadquad\backslash \backslash =!!!!!!sqrt\{(asin(eta))^2+(bcos(eta))^2\},qquadqquadquad\backslash \backslash =!!!!!!!!absqrt\{left(frac\{cos(eta)\}\{a\}\; ight)^2+left(frac\{sin(eta)\}\{b\}\; ight)^2\};qquadqquadquad\backslash \{\}^\{color\{white\}.\}end\{matrix\},!$

Thus $E\text{'}(0,phi)C\text{'}(0,eta)=ab,!$.

**Curvature**A simple, if crude, definition of a circle is "a curved line bent in equal proportions, where its endpoints meet".

Curvature , then, is the state and degree of deviation from a straight line—i.e., an "arced line".There are different interpretations of curvature, depending on such things as the planular angle the given arc is dividing and the direction being faced at the surface's point.What is concerned with here is "normal curvature", where "normal" refers toorthogonality , or perpendicularity.There are twoprincipal curvature s identified, a maximum, "κ_{1}", and a minimum, "κ_{2}".**Meridional maximum**::$kappa\_1=frac\{E\text{'}^3(0,phi)\}\{(ab)^2\}=frac\{ab\}\{C\text{'}^3(0,eta)\};,!$

:The arc in the meridional, north-south vertical direction at the planetographic equator possesses the maximum curvature, where it "pinches", thereby being the least straight.

**Perpendicular minimum**::$kappa\_2=frac\{E\text{'}(0,phi)\}\{a^2\}=frac\{cos(o!varepsilon)\}\{C\text{'}(0,eta)\};,!$

:The perpendicular, horizontally directed arc contains the least curvature at the equator, as the equatorial circumference is——at least in mathematical definition——perfectly circular.

The spot of least curvature on an oblate spheroid is at the poles, where the principal curvatures converge (as there is only one facing direction——towards the planetographic equator!) and the surface is most flattened.

**Merged curvature**:There are two universally recognized blendings of the principal curvatures: The

arithmetic mean is known as the**"**", "H", while the squaredmean curvature geometric mean ——or simply the product——is known as the**"**", "K":Gaussian curvature ::$H=frac\{kappa\_1+kappa\_2\}\{2\};qquadKappa=kappa\_1kappa\_2;,!$

**Principal radii of curvature**A curvature's radius, "RoC", is simply its reciprocal:

:$mathrm\{RoC\}\; =\; frac\{1\}mathrm\{curvature\};qquad\; mathrm\{curvature\}\; =\; frac\{1\}mathrm\{RoC\};,!$

Therefore, there are two principal radii of curvature: A vertical, corresponding to "κ

_{1}", and a horizontal, corresponding to "κ_{2}". Most introductions to the principal radii of curvature provide explanations independent to their curvature counterparts, focusing more on positioning and angle, rather than shape and contortion.**Meridional radius of curvature**:The vertical radius of curvature is parallel to the "principal vertical", which is the facing, "central meridian" and is known as the

**"meridional**radius of curvature,**M**" (alternatively, "R_{1}" or "p"):::$M=widehat\{M\}(0,phi)=;frac\{(ab)^2\}\{E\text{'}^3(0,phi)\};=frac\{1\}\{kappa\_1\}=;frac\{C\text{'}^3(0,eta)\}\{ab\};=\; ilde\{M\}(0,eta);,!$:::"(Crossing the planetographic equator, $\{\}\_\{M=bcos(o!varepsilon)=frac\{b^2\}\{a,!$.}"

**Normal radius of curvature**:The horizontal radius of curvature is perpendicular (again, meaning "normal" or "orthogonal") to the central meridian, but parallel to a great arc (be it spherical or elliptical) as it crosses the "prime vertical", or "transverse equator" (i.e., the meridian 90° away from the facing principal meridian——the "horizontal meridian"), and is known as the "transverse (equatorial)", or

**normal**, "radius of curvature,**N**" (alternatively, "R_{2}" or "v"):::$N=widehat\{N\}(0,phi)=;frac\{a^2\}\{E\text{'}(0,phi)\};=frac\{1\}\{kappa\_2\}=;frac\{a\}\{b\}C\text{'}(0,eta);=\; ilde\{N\}(0,eta);,!$:::"(Along the planetographic equator, which is an ellipsoid's"::: "only true great circle, $\{\}\_\{N=bsec(o!varepsilon)=a\},!$.)"

**Polar convergence**:Just as with the curvature, at the poles "M" and "N" converge, resulting in an equal radius of curvature:::::$M=N=asec(o!varepsilon)=frac\{a^2\}\{b\}.,!$

**Merged radius of curvature**:There are two possible, basic "means":

::*"Mean radius of curvature", which is the

arithmetic mean ::::$frac\{M+N\}\{2\}=frac\{frac\{1\}\{kappa\_1\}+frac\{1\}\{kappa\_2\{2\}=frac\{M\}\{2\}!cdot!left(1+frac\{a^4\}\{(bN)^2\}\; ight)=frac\{N\}\{2\}!cdot!left(frac\{(bN)^2\}\{a^4\}+1\; ight);,!$::*"Radius of mean curvature", which is the

harmonic mean ::::$frac\{2\}\{frac\{1\}\{M\}+frac\{1\}\{N=frac\{2\}\{kappa\_1+kappa\_2\}=frac\{1\}\{H\}=frac\{2M\}\{1+frac\{(bN)^2\}\{a^4=frac\{2N\}\{frac\{a^4\}\{(bN)^2\}+1\}.,!$:If these means are then arithmetically and harmonically averaged together, with the results reaveraged until the two averages converge, the result will be the

**arithmetic-harmonic mean**, which equals the**geometric mean**and, in turn, equals the square root of the "inverse of Gaussian curvature"!::$sqrt\{M!N\}=sqrt\{frac\{1\}\{Kappa=sqrt\{frac\{1\}\{kappa\_1kappa\_2=frac\{b\}\{a^2\}N^2;,!$

:While, at first glance, the squared form may be regarded as either the "radius of Gaussian curvature", "radius of Gaussian curvature

^{2}" or "radius^{2}of Gaussian Curvature", none of these terms quite fit, as Gaussian Curvature is the product of two curvatures, rather than a singular curvature.**Applications and examples***For the use in

differential geometry , seeCesàro equation .Radius of curvature is also used in a three part equation for bending of beams.

**ee also***

Radius of curvature (optics)

*Bend radius

*Curvature

*Diameter **External links*** [

*http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/nima/nug/gloss_t.html USIGS Glossary*] (Definitions of "transverse" terms)

* [*http://www.geom.uiuc.edu/zoo/diffgeom/surfspace/concepts/curvatures/prin-curv.html The Geometry Center: Principal Curvatures*]

* [*http://www-math.mit.edu/18.013A/HTML/chapter15/section03.html 15.3 Curvature and Radius of Curvature*]

* [*http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PrincipalCurvatures.html MathWorld: Principal Curvatures*]

* [*http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PrincipalRadiusofCurvature.html MathWorld: Principal Radius of Curvature*]

* [*http://www.brown.edu/Students/OHJC/hm4/k.htm The History of Curvature*]

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