- Arthur K. Shapiro
Arthur K. Shapiro (1923–1995), was a
psychiatristand expert on Tourette syndrome. His "contributions to the understanding of Tourette syndrome completely changed the prevailing view of this disorder";Cohen DJ, Jankovic J, Goetz CG, (eds). "Advances in Neurology, Vol. 85, Tourette Syndrome." Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, 2001., pp. xvii–xviii.] he has been described as "the father of modern tic disorder research" [Gadow KD, Sverd J. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, chronic tic disorder, and methylphenidate. "Adv Neurol." 2006;99:197–207. PMID 16536367] and is "revered by his colleagues as the first dean of modern Tourette syndrome researchers". [ Leckman, JF. "A Cursing Brain? The Histories of Tourette Syndrome", Book review. "The American Journal of Psychiatry" October 1, 2001.]
Until the early 1970s, the preferred intervention for Tourette syndrome was
psychoanalysis.Pagewise, Inc. [http://ri.essortment.com/tourettesyndrom_rnkl.htm Tourette syndrome.] Accessed 29 June 2006.] Shapiro wanted to prove that Tourette's was an organic disorder, and that psychotherapywas not the treatment of choice. "The turning point in the diagnosis and treatment of Tourette Syndrome occurred in 1965", when Dr. Shapiro and his wife, Elaine Shapiro (Ph.D.), treated a patient with haloperidol( Haldol). The Shapiros reported the treatment in a 1968 article, published by the " British Journal of Psychiatry", [cite journal |author=Shapiro AK, Shapiro E |title=Treatment of Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome with haloperidol |journal=Br J Psychiatry |volume=114 |issue=508 |pages=345–50 |year=1968 |month=March |pmid=4384341] after it was rejected by American journals. The paper "severely criticized" the psychoanalytic approach, which had endured throughout the previous century, to treating the condition.Pagewise, Inc. [http://ri.essortment.com/tourettesyndrom_rnkl.htm Tourette syndrome.] Accessed 29 June 2006.]
Working with the New York patient families who founded the
Tourette Syndrome Association(TSA) in 1972, the Shapiros advanced the argument that Tourette's was neurological rather than psychological, and the medical view of Tourette syndrome was "freed from its century-long submission to discredited psychoanalytic theory". In 1978, the Shapiros published a "landmark book" on the disorder, "Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome". In 1981, Shapiro was chosen honorary co-president of the First International Tourette Syndrome Symposium, held in New York. [Kushner, HI. [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0674180224 "A Cursing Brain? : The Histories of Tourette Syndrome".] Harvard University Press, 2000, p. 194. ISBN 0-674-00386-1] Since the 1990s, a more neutral view of Tourette's is emergingBlack, KJ. [http://www.emedicine.com/neuro/topic664.htm Tourette Syndrome and Other Tic Disorders.] "eMedicine" (March 22, 2006). Accessed 27 June 2006.] as a condition involving an interaction between biological vulnerability and adverse environmental events. [Leckman JF, Cohen DJ. [http://web.archive.org/web/20050303223505/http://info.med.yale.edu/chldstdy/tsocd/tsbook.htm "Tourette's Syndrome—Tics, Obsessions, Compulsions: Developmental Psychopathology and Clinical Care."] John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1999, p. vii.]
A colleague, psychiatrist Ruth Bruun, described Arthur Shapiro as a revolutionary, "willing to challenge the prevailing dogma", "dynamic, charming, and relentlessly stubborn when fighting for what he thought was right", "an engaging speaker", "a man of diverse interests and enthusiams", and a collector of medical antiques. Bruun also said, "It is extremely unusual for a couple of researchers to completely change the prevailing view of a disease, but this is exactly what they did."
The Shapiros were married for 46 years, and "were obviously devoted to each other". After Arthur's death, Elaine published their last joint effort, "The Powerful Placebo : From Ancient Priest to Modern Physician".
*Shapiro, Arthur K., Shapiro, Elaine, Shapiro, J., et al. "Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome." Raven Press Ltd; 2nd edition (January 1988).
*Shapiro, Arthur K., Shapiro, Elaine. "The Powerful Placebo : From Ancient Priest to Modern Physician". The Johns Hopkins University Press; New Ed edition (October 17, 2000)
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