Aquaporin 2

Aquaporin 2

AQP2 is found in the apical cell membranes of the kidney's collecting duct principal cells and in intracellular vesicles located throughout the cell.


It is the only aquaporin regulated by vasopressin.cite journal |author=Dibas AI, Mia AJ, Yorio T |title=Aquaporins (water channels): role in vasopressin-activated water transport |journal=Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. |volume=219 |issue=3 |pages=183–99 |year=1998 |pmid=9824541 |doi= |url=]

This aquaporin is regulated in two ways by the peptide hormone vasopressin:
* short-term regulation (minutes) through trafficking of AQP2 vesicles to the apical region where they fuse with the apical plasma membrane
* long-term regulation (days) through an increase in AQP2 gene expression.

Clinical significance

Mutations in this channel are associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which can be either autosomal dominant or recessive.

Lithium, which is often used to treat bipolar disorder, can cause acquired diabetes insipidus by decreasing the expression of the AQP2 gene. This can result in debilitating increases in the rate of urine production.

The expression of the AQP2 gene is increased during conditions associated with water retention such as pregnancy and congestive heart failure.

ee also

* Aquaporin


Further reading

citations =
*cite journal | author=Bichet DG |title=Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. |journal=Advances in chronic kidney disease |volume=13 |issue= 2 |pages= 96–104 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16580609 |doi= 10.1053/j.ackd.2006.01.006
*cite journal | author=Robben JH, Knoers NV, Deen PM |title=Cell biological aspects of the vasopressin type-2 receptor and aquaporin 2 water channel in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. |journal=Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. |volume=291 |issue= 2 |pages= F257–70 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16825342 |doi= 10.1152/ajprenal.00491.2005
*cite journal | author=Sasaki S, Fushimi K, Saito H, "et al." |title=Cloning, characterization, and chromosomal mapping of human aquaporin of collecting duct. |journal=J. Clin. Invest. |volume=93 |issue= 3 |pages= 1250–6 |year= 1994 |pmid= 7510718 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Deen PM, Weghuis DO, Sinke RJ, "et al." |title=Assignment of the human gene for the water channel of renal collecting duct Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) to chromosome 12 region q12-->q13. |journal=Cytogenet. Cell Genet. |volume=66 |issue= 4 |pages= 260–2 |year= 1994 |pmid= 7512890 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Uchida S, Sasaki S, Fushimi K, Marumo F |title=Isolation of human aquaporin-CD gene. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=269 |issue= 38 |pages= 23451–5 |year= 1994 |pmid= 7522228 |doi=
*cite journal | author=van Lieburg AF, Verdijk MA, Knoers VV, "et al." |title=Patients with autosomal nephrogenic diabetes insipidus homozygous for mutations in the aquaporin 2 water-channel gene. |journal=Am. J. Hum. Genet. |volume=55 |issue= 4 |pages= 648–52 |year= 1994 |pmid= 7524315 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Saito F, Sasaki S, Chepelinsky AB, "et al." |title=Human AQP2 and MIP genes, two members of the MIP family, map within chromosome band 12q13 on the basis of two-color FISH. |journal=Cytogenet. Cell Genet. |volume=68 |issue= 1-2 |pages= 45–8 |year= 1994 |pmid= 7525161 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Nielsen S, Chou CL, Marples D, "et al." |title=Vasopressin increases water permeability of kidney collecting duct by inducing translocation of aquaporin-CD water channels to plasma membrane. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=92 |issue= 4 |pages= 1013–7 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7532304 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Maruyama K, Sugano S |title=Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. |journal=Gene |volume=138 |issue= 1-2 |pages= 171–4 |year= 1994 |pmid= 8125298 |doi=
*cite journal |author=Deen PM, Verdijk MA, Knoers NV, "et al." |title=Requirement of human renal water channel aquaporin-2 for vasopressin-dependent concentration of urine. |journal=Science |volume=264 |issue= 5155 |pages= 92–5 |year= 1994 |pmid= 8140421 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Oksche A, Möller A, Dickson J, "et al." |title=Two novel mutations in the aquaporin-2 and the vasopressin V2 receptor genes in patients with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. |journal=Hum. Genet. |volume=98 |issue= 5 |pages= 587–9 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8882880 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Mulders SM, Knoers NV, Van Lieburg AF, "et al." |title=New mutations in the AQP2 gene in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus resulting in functional but misrouted water channels. |journal=J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. |volume=8 |issue= 2 |pages= 242–8 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9048343 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Ma T, Yang B, Umenishi F, Verkman AS |title=Closely spaced tandem arrangement of AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6 genes in a 27-kilobase segment at chromosome locus 12q13. |journal=Genomics |volume=43 |issue= 3 |pages= 387–9 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9268644 |doi= 10.1006/geno.1997.4836
*cite journal | author=Canfield MC, Tamarappoo BK, Moses AM, "et al." |title=Identification and characterization of aquaporin-2 water channel mutations causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with partial vasopressin response. |journal=Hum. Mol. Genet. |volume=6 |issue= 11 |pages= 1865–71 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9302264 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, "et al." |title=Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library. |journal=Gene |volume=200 |issue= 1-2 |pages= 149–56 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9373149 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Vargas-Poussou R, Forestier L, Dautzenberg MD, "et al." |title=Mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor and aquaporin-2 genes in 12 families with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. |journal=J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. |volume=8 |issue= 12 |pages= 1855–62 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9402087 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Kuwahara M |title=Aquaporin-2, a vasopressin-sensitive water channel, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. |journal=Intern. Med. |volume=37 |issue= 2 |pages= 215–7 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9550615 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Mulders SM, Bichet DG, Rijss JP, "et al." |title=An aquaporin-2 water channel mutant which causes autosomal dominant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is retained in the Golgi complex. |journal=J. Clin. Invest. |volume=102 |issue= 1 |pages= 57–66 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9649557 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Goji K, Kuwahara M, Gu Y, "et al." |title=Novel mutations in aquaporin-2 gene in female siblings with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: evidence of disrupted water channel function. |journal=J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. |volume=83 |issue= 9 |pages= 3205–9 |year= 1998 |pmid= 9745427 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Saito T, Ishikawa S, Ito T, "et al." |title=Urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 water channel differentiates psychogenic polydipsia from central diabetes insipidus. |journal=J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. |volume=84 |issue= 6 |pages= 2235–7 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10372737 |doi=

External links


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