The Šubić were one of the twelve tribes which constituted
Croatian statehood in the Middle Ages; they held the county of Bribir (Varvaria) in inland Dalmatia.
Bribiris an archaeological site in inland Dalmatia. It is located on a flat hill about fifteen kilometres northwest of Skradin, near the old Zadarroad which goes through Benkovac. Under the steep rocks of its western side there is the source of the Bribirčica stream and from here the rich and fertile Bribir-Ostrovica field spreads out. The hill of Bribir, an ideal place to control the surrounding territory, was a perfect area to inhabit. The one who held it had control over all roads and approaches from the sea to the hinterland, making it an ideal settlement. During the Roman period Bribir, known as Varvaria, had the status of "municipium" and was the centre of one of the fourteen Liburnian counties.
The Byzantine emperor
Constantine Porphyrogenituswrote in the 10th century about the Croatssettling in Dalmatia in the 7th century and described how they had organised their country into eleven counties (zupanias) one of which was "Breberi", centred on site of the old "Varvaria". A line of hills separated it from the territory of Kninto the north and to the south it bordered on Skradin. It was held by a clan that in coeval documents is referred to as "nobiles, comites" or "principes Breberienses". These "Breberienses" belonged to the Šubić tribe, one of the twelve which composed Croatian statehood in the Middle Agesand one of the six from which the Ban, or viceroy, was chosen.
The Coat Of Arms
The original coat of arms of this clan of nobles is a wing argent on a shield gules. The crest is a sprig of barberry. Argent and gules were the colours of the papal party (guelfs) and still are those of Croatia. The coat of arms could be derived from the winged shield standard of the royal chamberlain, a post held by "Budez postelnic berberensis jupanus" (1069).
In recent history books whenever members of this clan are mentioned in relation to their prominent role in the 13th and 14th centuries the surname of Šubić is conferred upon them by the historian. This was not the way that the members called themselves at the time. During the Middle Ages every man in Croatia bore four names: the name given at baptism, the patronym, the name of his clan which was also the name of the settlement in which he lived, and his tribal affiliation. In the period from
1069to the destruction of the county by the Turks in 1520, the many personages of the clan that emerge from the original Latin documents qualify themselves as "de Breberio" preceded by their Christian name and patronym; only rarely do they add their tribal affiliation. The seal of Paul (Pavao) (+1312), the greatest figure of the clan, has the following lettering on it: "+ S(igillum). PAULI BREBERIENSIS BANI TOCIUS SCLAVONIE". Another seal of the same man has "PAULUS DE BREBERIO BANUS CROATORUM D(OMI)N(U)S ET BOSNE". Thus, in the vulgar the surname would be Breber or some variant (Breberić, Brebrić, Barbier, Barber, Barberich, etc.). The 19th century erudite Croatian historians who wrote the first history books for the public opted for Šubić which, in the ardent nationalistic spirit of the time, sounded reassuringly Slavic as compared to Breber.
During the reign of
Dmitar Zvonimir(1075-1089), the mythical golden age of the Kingdom of Croatia, the highest court offices of "postelnik" ("comes camerarius") and "tepizo" ("comes palatinus") were held by "Budez" and "Dominicus", both of the lineage. During the 13th and 14th centuries Brebers were many times called to cover the post of count in the townships of Split, Trogir, Skradinand Omiš. In the documents, it is possible to identify six different branches of the Breber clan. The most illustrious of which is the one descended from "iupanus Miroslaus Brebriensis, filius Bogdanizi" (1184). His great-grandson Paul, mentioned above, reached the peak of power towards the end of the 13th century. He was Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia, his rule extended to Bosnia, and with his brothers he controlled the maritime cities of Dalmatia. In these regions he was champion of the Pope and was instrumental in placing Charles, the firstborn of the King of Naples, on the throne of Hungary and Croatia. He was related to the King of Naples, the King of Serbia, the Da Camino lords of Treviso, and the Tiepoloand Dandolopatricians of Venice. When he died in 1312, his eldest son Mladen tried to maintain the hold over the other Croatian clans, but was unsuccessful and bit by bit lost land, castles and towns.
1347King Louis I of Hungaryconferred on this branch of the Brebers, in the persons of Count Gregory and Count George, respectively son and nephew of Ban Paul, the castle of Zrin in exchange for the strategically important castle of Ostrovica, their last holding outside of ancestral Breber. This branch would be known by the surname of Zrinski ("a Zrinio, Zrinsky, Zrínyi, Zrini, de Serin, Sdrin") which rose to its height of fame and glory with Count Nicholas IV, the hero of Szigetvár (1566), and with Count Nicholas VII (1616-1664), the Scourge of the Ottomans.Marcus Forstall, the secretary of the latter, compiled a history of the Zrins, tracing it back to the Brebers, to the tribe of Šubić, and from there to the Roman "gens Sulpicia" which, according to Suetonius, sprang from the love of Zeusfor Pasiphaë. A feeling for classical antiquity was a cultural feature of the Renaissanceand the wish to establish a link with the great tradition of Romewas a common vanity of those times. The claim of the Zrins, however, is not totally groundless. During the times of the Roman Empire, Dalmatia was a senatorial province and would have affiliations with the patrician families of the capital. P. Sulpicius Rufuswas governor of Illyricum around 45 B.C. and could have established a settlement of "clientes" here, as was the general custom during Roman rule. Varvaria was a Roman "municipium" under Italic law but was actually enroled in the tribe Claudia. Archaeological evidence at Bribir shows no sign of interruption of human occupation between the Roman "municipium" and the arrival of the Croats. Other clans and families in Croatia and Dalmatia like the Karin, the Babonić, the Frankopan, the Gusićand some of the patrician families from the maritime cities also claimed a similar link with Rome.
The greatness of the house of Zrin ended with the brothers Nicholas and Peter condemned to the scaffold in the famous trial of Vienna (1671) regarding the
Zrinski-Frankopan conspiracy. Of the last counts, Adam fell in the cavalry charge against the Turks at Salankemenin 1671 and, Antun, after having brilliantly fought against the French, fell into disgrace and died in prison in 1703.
Famous members of Zrinski family
Martino Zrinskior Sdrigna, was born in 1462and was the son of Count Pietro II and brother of Nikola III, father of Nikola IV, the one who is referred to in history as Nikola the Great Zrinski of Sighed. Martino Zrinski was the first member of the Zrinski family to live in Cefalonia, Greece. He adopted the name of Sdrin or Sdrinia.
Count Nikola Zrinski, (born
1508) was the ban of Dalmatia, Slavonia and Croatia, the commander of Szeged(from 1561) and the Habsburg commander in western Hungary (from 1563). He is considered the most courageous and prominent member of the Zrinski family, which together with the Frankopans was the most distinguished and famous noble family in Croatian history. He established his reputation as a fearless warrior in the defense of Viennain 1529, and in the victory over the Turks at Budain 1529. As Croatian Ban, he persistently advocated Croatian interests. He acquired immortal fame for himself and Croatia in the Battle of Szigetvárin 1566. More than 100,000 well-armed Turks, headed by the famed Suleiman the Magnificentand Grand Vezier Mehmed-Pasha Sokolović, besieged the fortress of Szeged from August 7th to September 7th, 1566. Zrinski, with "two thousand three hundred and a few more" warriors defended it, until the charge from the fortress, in which he was killed. The Sultan offered Nikola Zrinski the crown of Croatia in vain. The destiny of Europe was at stake then, and Zrinski and his company of Croatian knights chose to defend the interests of the Christian West. Sultan Suleiman died during the battle. After this the Grand Vezier abandoned that military expedition and returned to Constantinople.
Nikola's IV son, Giorgio V (Juraj) inherited his father's property. He was more interested in books than in chivalry. He became enthusiastic about
Lutheranismwhich he did not accept, but forced the people to turn Protestant. He persecuted Catholic priests and devastated a number of the churches, especially the famous Paulist monastery at Sveta Jelena, which did him no credit among the people. But on the other hand, he founded the first printing office at Nedelišće(near Čakovec) in 1574, when there was no other printing office in Croatia.
His son, Giorgio VI (Juraj Jr.) turned back to Catholicism and "purified" Međimurje from Lutheranism. Unfortunately his chivalry and rapier-tonguedness were a thorn in his superior's, general
Albrecht von Wallenstein's, side and von Wallenstein had Giorgio poisoned after a verbal duel in 1626.
Another branch of the Breber clan, descended from a Petrus living at the beginning of the 14th century, owed its rise to having remained unshakeably loyal to Sigismund of Luxemburg, the future Holy Roman Emperor (1411), in his struggle for the crown of Hungary-Croatia against
Ladislas of Durazzo. Nicholas, James and John, "nobiles de Breberio", were confirmed in their possessions. James was nominated Viceban. The family also received the castle of Pernawith all the appurtenances. This family was then known as Perenyi ("Peransky, de Perén, a Pernya") and was numbered among the magnates of Hungary up to the 20th century. Gabriel Perényi and bishop Francis Perényifell fighting in the fateful Battle of Mohács(29th August, 1526).
Another family branch that rose to wealth and power were the descendants of "Ugrinus" (died 1335). Known under the nickname of Melić, then Melith, which later became their surname, they obtained vast estates in
Besides these particular offshoots which went their separate ways, a numerous kin continued to abide by the ancient holding of Breber. In
1324when the citizenship of Zadarwas conferred on the "nobiles domini de Briberio", 190 members of the clan presented themselves for the investiture. In 1353the Ottoman Turkscrossed the Dardanellesand began their invasion of Europe. In the 15th century Bosnia was already a pashalik from where raids would be carried into Croatia-Dalmatia. The feudal levies and the clan warriors had no hope against the Turkish war machine and met their fate in the battle of Krbavsko Polje (1493). The castle of Breber was caught on the front between the Turkish, Hungarian and Venetian armies and by 1520had become a desolate waste of rubble. Last news giving the "comites Breberienses" still in their ancient seat is in the diocesan synod of Skradin held at the time of bishop Archangel (1490-1502). The Turkish terror displaced large portions of the population of Dalmatia-Croatia. Some sought refuge in the cities of the coast, some crossed the sea to Italy, others, especially those belonging to the nobility, resettled to the north in that part of Slavoniastill under the crown of Hungary-Croatia. Their clan organisation definitely disrupted, the single Breber families settled in various places in the county of Zagreb("Comitatus Zagrabiensis)". In the second half of the XVI century we find one nucleus settled in Turopolje ("Campus Zagrabiensis") where they joined the free community of lesser nobles ("nobiles unius sessionis"). Another group established itself at Stubica and other places in the Zagorje region, where one branch, the counts Jankovic Bribirsky, owned the Horvatska manor in the 17th century and remained one of the prominent local families till the 20th century. Breber families are still living in these places to this day.
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