Floristry is the general term used to describe the professional floral trade. It encompasses
flowercare and handling, floral design or flower arranging, merchandising and display and flower delivery. Wholesale florists sell bulk flowers and related supplies to professionals in the trade. Retail florists offer fresh flowers and related products and services to consumers.
Floristry is sometimes used as an umbrella term referring to the cultivation of
flowers as well as their arrangement, rather than solely to the business of selling them. However, the floral industry is the basic drive behind floristry. Florist shops, along with online stores are the main flower-only outlets, but supermarkets, garden supply stores and filling stations also sell flowers. Floral Designor floral arts is the artof creating flower arrangements in vases, bowls, baskets or other containers, or making bouquets and compositions from cut flowers, foliages, herbs, ornamental grasses and other botanicalmaterials. Often the terms "floral design" and "floristry" are considered synonymous. Florists are people who work with flowers and plants, generally at the retaillevel. The term is not to be confused with floristics(the study of distribution and relationships of plant species over geographic areas.). Floristry is also not to be confused with horticulturewhich more broadly relates to the cultivation of flowers and plants.
The craft and business
The craft of floristry involves various skills. These include selecting flowers that will look good together (based on principles of
designor general instinct), knowing how to cut, treat, and arrange flowers and other stock plants so they will remain fresh as long as possible, and (as explained above) selling them, which involves knowledge of customer requirements and expectations. Knowing how to form wreaths, bouquets, corsages, boutonnieres/'buttonholes', artificial arrangements and other more complicated arrangements is also important. Wreaths can be made out of many different types of flowers and plants, and often include ribbon and artificial product.
The flowers sold in florist shops typically represent the varieties abundantly available in the season but also include blossoms flown in from around the world. Basic varieties include
roses, tulips, irises, orchids and lilies. Fashion sometimes plays a role in floristry; what is considered the flower that everyone needs to have today can change very quickly.
Some shops also stock
gift baskets, fruit, and chocolates as well as flowers, where as some shops will purchase these things only when needed for an order. Floral business is seasonal and is heavily influenced by the following holidays and events: Christmas, Valentine's Day, Administrative Professionals' Day, Mothers' Day, All Souls Day, Advent, Easter, weddings and funerals.This list of primary floral events is from [http://www.teagasc.ie/advisory/alternatives/200001/29_floristry.htm Teagasc – Advisory – Factsheet 29: Floristry] , Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority, page reviewed on August 30, 2005] These occasions make up the largest part of the business, with the sale of house plants and home decorbeing a smaller, but more constant, part. Flowers for personal enjoyment as well as those selected to celebrate birthdays, anniversaries, thank-you's and get well wishes are also a significant portion of a florist's business.
Floral education, both formal and informal, is another significant segment of the floral industry. Established Floral Designers and Artists impart their craft to students interested in floral design as hobby or career. Courses are generally available in university
Holticulturedepartments, through community colleges, via private post-secondary vocational schools and through professional florist trade associations.
The floral business has been impacted significantly by the corporate and social event world in as much as flowers play a large part in the decor of special events and meetings. Centerpieces, entryways, reception tables, bridal bouquets, wedding chuppahs and stage sets and only a few examples of how flowers are used in the business and social event arenas.
tyles of floristry
Many nations have their own style of floral arranging.
Ikebanais a style of floral designthat originated in Japan. Most well known for its simplicity of line and form, Ikebana is a design style primarily practiced for personal enjoyment.
English Garden style is traditionally an English form of floral design. Stems are placed in a radial fashion and feature abundant use of seasonal flowers and foliages. These designs are often done as low, tufted mounds, or taller vase arrangements that are all-sided (360°), and incorporate garden flowers like
roses, delphinium and peonies. Many florists that follow this design style do not use Baby's Breath, Carnations and Leatherleaf.
High Style is a catch-all term to describe contemporary, linear designs that highlights unique forms of both individual floral materials and of the designs themselves. Arrangements generally feature negative space and incorporate asymmetric placement of materials. The style stands in direct contrast to traditional radial arrangements such as English Garden.
High Style designs often incorporate unique, exotic or tropical flowers such as such as Birds of Paradise,
Anthuriums and Proteas but may also employ more common blossoms.
The flower market/auction
A basic requirement of florist shops is the purchasing of flowers to replenish their stock. The flower market, like other agricultural and commodity markets is subject to many fluctuations such as growing conditions and weather,
supply and demand, and fashion.
North America, there are many flower auctions and wholesale markets including United Flower Growers, located in Burnaby, British Columbia, The Boston Flower Exchange, The Los Angeles Flower Districtand the San Francisco Flower Market. New Yorkand Miamialso have a significant wholesale flower presence but the companies are not housed within a common facility.
Internationally there are hundreds of wholesale flower markets and auctions, the largest of which is located in Aalsmeer, Holland, the
Bloemenveiling Aalsmeer . Other major markets include the fledgling
Dubai Flower Centreand the Ota Flower Marketin Tokyo, Japan.
Generally, a florist's shop will contain a large array of flowers, sometimes displayed on the street, or will have a large plate glass window to display the flowers. To keep them fresh, the flowers will be inside of a refrigerator and kept in water, generally in glass or plastic
vases or other containers. Most shops have a fridge near the front of the store with large glass doors so that customers can easily view the contents. Some shops also have another refrigerator out of the customers' view where they keep extra stock and arrangements for customers' orders. Most stores have a back section in which the designers can work on orders with more privacy.
ignificance of particular flowers
Typically, a florist will organize flowers by season and holiday.Flowers have various different meanings in different cultures. The holidays and events for which flowers are used vary. Poppies are used to remember fallen soldiers only in Great Britain and the Commonwealth countries. The cultural meaning of colors also strongly affects the choice and use of flowers. People often prefer flowers that are associated with their
ethnic groupor country, and various colors may have special meanings of luckor deathor loveor other basic human traits. A flower such as a red rose might to some mean love, but to others it might be considered indecent or simply puzzling. The vastly divergent views on the color whitecan lead to major flower issues. White is viewed as standing for death in many Asian cultures but is considered a symbol of purity and innocence in many European and American cultures. Such differences can lead to difficult issues when a bouquet of white lilies, for example, is delivered.
Cut flowers are widely sold in supermarkets and gas stations. Unlike a florist, these outlets offer a limited range usually in the form of mixed bunches.
World Wide Webhas had a significant impact on traditional florists, with the North American market experiencing a more than 20% decline in traditional, independently owned flower shops since 1998. Purchases from shops are slowly being overtaken by online flower deliveryordering and floral wire services. However, some independent florists have taken to having their own online store, where customers can order online instead of the telephone, which is most the common means of receiving orders.
Cut flower industry, the cultivation of flowers for use in floristry.
Korean flower arrangement
Language of flowers
* [http://dmoz.org/Arts/Crafts/Flowers/Education/Schools_and_Academies/ Floral Design Schools]
* [http://dmoz.org/Business/Consumer_Goods_and_Services/Floral/Associations/ Florists Associations]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.