Progenitor cell

Progenitor cell

The concept of a progenitor cell is difficult to define. Like stem cells, progenitor cells have a capacity to differentiate into a specific type of cell.cite web |url=http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?progenitor+cell |title=Definition: progenitor cell from Online Medical Dictionary |format= |work= |accessdate=2008-09-10] In contrast to stem cells, however, they are already far more specific than stem cells: they are pushed to differentiate into their "target" cell. Controversy about the exact definition remains and the concept is still evolving, since it is only a decade old.

Despite the difficulty of defining progenitors, the term is frequently used in research. Thus, the importance of progenitors cannot be ignored.

The terms "progenitor cell" and "stem cell" are sometimes equated. [DorlandsDict|nine/100009804|progenitor cell]

Properties of Progenitor Cells

Most progenitors are described as unipotent or multipotent. In this point of view, they may be compared to adult stem cells. But progenitors are said to be in a farther stage of cell differentiation. They are in the “center” between stem cells and fully differentiated cell. The kind of potency they have, depends on the type of their "parent" stem cell and also on their niche.Like stem cells, mostly, they are formed and transported in a colony, with the right conditions for them to grow and differentiate into their target tissues.In contrast, some progenitor cells were found during research, and were isolated. After their marker was found, it was proven that these progenitor could move through the body and migrate towards the tissue where they are needed. Lots of properties are shared by adult stem cells and progenitor cells. But still, controversy remains because Embryonic stem cells are true stem cells in that they are pluripotent and show unlimited capacity for self-renewal. In contrast, many cells termed adult stem cells would be better defined as progenitor cells, as their capacities for unlimited self renewal and plasticity have not been comprehensively demonstrated.

Progenitor cells are only found in adult organisms, they act as a repair system for the body. They replenish special cells, but also maintain the blood, skin and intestinal tissues.

Function of Progenitor Cells

The majority of progenitor cells lie dormant or possess little activity in the tissue in which they reside. They exhibit slow growth and their main role is to replace cells lost by normal attrition. In case of tissue injury, damaged or dead cells, progenitor cells can be activated. growth factors or cytokines are two substances which trigger the progenitors to mobilize towards the damaged tissue. At the same time, they start to differentiate into the target cells. Not all progenitors are mobile and are situated near the tissue of their target differentiation. When the cytokines, growth factors and other cell division enhancing stimulators take on the progenitors, a higher rate of cell division is introduced. It leads to the recovery of the tissue.

Examples of Progenitor Cells

The characterization or the defining principle of progenitor cells, in order to separate them from others, are rather based on the different cell markers than their morphological appearance.

* Satellite cells found in muscles. They play a major role in muscle cell differentiaton and injury recoveries.
* Intermediate progenitor cells formed in the subventricular zone. cite journal |author=Noctor SC, Martínez-Cerdeño V, Kriegstein AR |title=Contribution of intermediate progenitor cells to cortical histogenesis |journal=Arch. Neurol. |volume=64 |issue=5 |pages=639–42 |year=2007 |month=May |pmid=17502462 |doi=10.1001/archneur.64.5.639 |url=http://archneur.ama-assn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17502462] Some of these transit amplifying neural progenitors migrate via rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb and differentiate further into specific types of neural cells.
* Bone marrow stromal cells, basal cell of epidermis have 10% of progenitor cell, although they are often classed as stem cells due to their high plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self renewal.
* Periosteum contains progenitor cells that develop into osteoblasts and chondroblasts.
* Pancreatic progenitor cells are among the most studied progenitors. They are used in research to develop a cure against diabetes type-1.
* Angioblasts or Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). These are very important for research on fracture and wounds healing.

References

Further reading

* Barber CL, Iruela-Arispe ML(2006). The ever-elusive endothelial progenitor cell: identities, functions and clinical implications. Pediatric Researc 59, 722
* I. Todorov, , I. Nair, K. Ferreri, J. Rawson, A. Kuroda, M. Pascual, K. Omori, L. Valiente, C. Orr, I. Al-Abdullah, A. Riggs, F. Kandeel(2005). Multipotent Progenitor Cells Isolated From Adult Human Pancreatic Tissue. Transplant Proceedings 37, 3420-3421
* Raewyn M. Seaberg and Derek van der Kooy(2003). Stem and progenitor cells: the premature desertion of rigorous definitions. Trends in Neurosciences 26, 125-131


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • progenitor cell — In development a parent cell that gives rise to a distinct cell lineage by a series of cell divisions …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • progenitor cell — stem c …   Medical dictionary

  • Megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor cell — Lineage. Captions in Polish, but MEP visible at bottom center. The megakaryocyte erythroid progenitor cell (or MEP, or hMEP to specify human[1]) is a cell that gives rise to megakaryocytes and erythrocytes …   Wikipedia

  • Endothelial progenitor cell — Endothelial progenitor cells are bone marrow derived cells that circulate in the blood and have the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, the cells that make up the lining of blood vessels. The process by which blood vessels are born… …   Wikipedia

  • Cell potency — Pluripotent, embryonic stem cells originate as inner mass cells within a blastocyst. The stem cells can become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta. Only the morula s cells are totipotent, able to become all tissues and a placenta. The… …   Wikipedia

  • cell fate — Of an embryonic parent (progenitor) cell or cell type, the range and distribution of differentiated tissues formed by its daughter cells. For example, cells of the neural crest differentiate to form (among other things) cells of the peripheral… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • cell line — noun A biological tissue or group of individual cells that are genetically identical as a result of dividing mitotically from a single progenitor cell …   Wiktionary

  • Hematopoietic stem cell — HSC=Hematopoietic stem cell, Progenitor=Progenitor cell, L blast=Lymphoblast, Lymphocyte, Mo blast=Monoblast, Monocyte, Myeloblast …   Wikipedia

  • Neural stem cell — Latin cellula nervosa precursoria Code TH H2.00.01.0.00010 Neural stem cells (NSCs) are the self renewing, multipotent cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system. In 1989, Sally Temple described multipotent, self renewing… …   Wikipedia

  • Stem cell — Mouse embryonic st …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”