- Sumiyoshi Taisha
nihongo|Sumiyoshi Grand Shrine|住吉大社|Sumiyoshi-taisha is a
Shintoshrine in Sumiyoshi ward in the city of Osaka, Japan. It is the main shrine of all the Sumiyoshi shrines in Japan. However, the oldest shrine that enshrines the Sumiyoshi Sanjin, the three Sumiyoshi kami, is the Sumiyoshi shrine in Hakata.
It is called "Sumiyoshi-san" or "Sumiyossan" by the locals, and is famous for the large crowds that come to the shrine on New Year's Day for
Sumiyoshi Taisha enshrines the Sumiyoshi Sanjin -- Sokotsutsu no Onomikoto, Nakatsutsu no Onomikoto, and Uwatsutsu no Onomikoto -- and Okinagatarashihime no Mikoto (
Empress Jingū), and they are collectively known as the "Sumiyoshi Ōkami", the great gods of Sumiyoshi. Another term is "Sumiyoshi no Ōgami no Miya".
It gives its name to a style of shrine architecture known as Sumiyoshi-zukuri.
The Sumiyoshi "kami" and Empress Jingū
Sumiyoshi Taisha was founded by Tamomi no Sukune in the 9th year of
Emperor Chūai's reign (year 211[http://www.sumiyoshitaisha.net/outline/history.html] ). A member of a powerful family in the area, he was given the clan name of Owari by Empress Jingū, when she visited the coast of the Gokishichidō(Modern Shichidou in Sakai, Osaka) after her return from her invasion of Korea. At the same time, she told him to enshrine the Sumiyoshi Sanjin, as she had been told to do so by an oracle. Later, the empress herself was also enshrined at Sumiyoshi. The Tsumori clan, whose members have succeeded the position of head priest of Sumiyoshi Taisha since the reign of Emperor Ōjin, are the descendants of Tamomi no Sukune's son, Tsumori no Toyoada (or Tsumori no Toyonogodan).
Sumiyoshi Taisha is also regarded as the ancestor shrine of Hachimanshin, the god of war, as the taisha enshrines Empress Jingū, who was the mother of Emperor Ōjin, who was deified as Hachiman. Therefore, the shrine is guardian of the
Kawachi Dynasty. Also, Hachimanshin is the god of war on land, and the Sumiyoshi gods are the gods of war on the sea. Later, Sumiyoshi Taisha became one of the three "kami" of waka.
Yamato Diplomacy and the Silk Road
The Taisha is a shrine with connections to the ancient Yamato royalty's diplomacy and sailing, protecting the
Imperial embassies to China. As the head priests, the Tsumori clan also boarded these embassy ships. The embassies departed from Suminoe no Tsu, a port on the Hosoe-gawa (also known as Hosoi-gawa. Known as Suminoe no Hosoe in ancient times), a river located to the south of the shrine. Suminoe no Tsu is the oldest international port in Japan, and was opened by Emperor Nintoku. It was the Silk Road's entrance into Japan.
In "The Tale of Genji"
Although Sumiyoshi Taisha is currently completely landlocked, until the
Edo period, the shrine riding grounds (currently Sumiyoshi Park) faced the sea, and was considered the representative of the beautiful "hakushaseishou" (whie sand and green pines) landscape. So much so that this type of scenery in designs and art is known as the Sumiyoshi design. In Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji, the shrine is used as an important stage in some chapters concerning the Akashi Lady.Also, in the folktale "Issun-bōshi", an old couple who had not been blessed with children prayed at Sumiyoshi Taisha. Their prayers were granted, and when the child went on a voyage, he departed at Sumiyoshi harbor, sailed down Hosoe-gawa to Osaka Bay, sailed up the Yodo River, and entered Kyoto.
The main shrine on the grounds is built in the Sumiyoshi-tzukuri style, and is designated as a national treasure on the grounds that it is the oldest example of this style of architecture. There are three characteristics of the style:
* The pillars, rafters, and gables are painted vermillion, and the wainscot is of white chalk
* The roof is made of cypress bark, and the gables are a strong, straight line
* The entrance and exit are lined up in the sainyuu style.
There is an "okichigi" (置千木) a forked
finial, on the roof of the main shrine, as well as 5 square "katsuogi" (堅魚木), billets placed horizontally along the length of the roof. [http://www.aisf.or.jp/~jaanus/deta/k/katsuogi.htm] There are no corridors around the sanctuary. It is surrounded by a plank "tamagaki" fence (玉垣), which is futher surrounded by an "ara-imi" fence (荒忌垣).
The pillars are round, and stand on stone foundations. The planks between the pillars are horizontal. The area seen from front is the nave, and the beyond is the inner shrine and second room.
One of the stone
toriiat the shrine is known as the Kakutorii (角鳥居). It is unusual in that the middle bar does not extend outside of the vertical posts, and all pieces have square edges. [http://www.sumiyoshitaisha.net/outline/architect.html]
[http://www.sumiyoshitaisha.net/ Official site]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.