- Federal Reporter
The "Federal Reporter" is a
case lawreporter in the United Statesthat is published by West Publishing. The third and current "Federal Reporter" series publishes decisions of the United States courts of appealsand the United States Court of Federal Claims; prior series had varying scopes that covered decisions of other federal courts as well. Though West is a private company that does not have a legal monopoly over the court opinions it publishes, it has so dominated the industry in the U.S. that legal professionals uniformly cite to the "Federal Reporter" for included decisions.
Features and print format
The "Federal Reporter" organizes court opinions within each volume by the date of the decision, and includes the full official text of the court's opinion. West editors add headnotes that summarize key principles of law in the cases, and Key Numbers that classify the decisions by topic within the
West American Digest System.
Only decisions designated by the courts as "for publication"—those with full
precedential value for which citation in court filings is permissible—are included in the "Federal Reporter". "Unpublished" decisions of the U.S. Courts of Appeals may be found in the " Federal Appendix", also published by West. New opinions are first issued by West in weekly pamphlets called "Advance Sheets," to be eventually supplanted by the final hardbound, successively numbered volumes. Three series of "Federal Reporter" have been published to date.
The "Federal Reporter", including its supplementary material, is also available at websites including [http://openjurist.org OpenJurist.org] , [http://altlaw.org AltLaw] on
CD-ROMcompilations, and on West's online legal database, Westlaw. Because individual court cases are identified by case citations that consist of printed page and volume numbers, the electronic text of the opinions incorporates the page numbers of the printed volumes with "star pagination" formatting—the numbers are boldfaced within brackets and with asterisks prepended (i.e., [*4] ) to stand out from the rest of the text.
Though West has
copyrightover its original headnotes and keynotes, the opinions themselves are public domainand accordingly may be found in other sources, chiefly Lexis, Westlaw's competitor. Lexis also copies the star paginated "Federal Reporter" numbering in their text of the opinions to allow for proper citation, a practice that was the subject of an unsuccessful copyright lawsuit by West against the parent company of Lexis. [See "Matthew Bender & Co. v. West Publ. Co.", 158 F.3d 693 (2d Cir. 1999).]
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