Ken Knowlton

Ken Knowlton

__NOTOC__Kenneth C. Knowlton (born 1931 in Springville, New York), is a computer graphics pioneer, artist, mosaicist and portraitist, who worked at Bell Labs.

In 1963, Knowlton developed the BEFLIX (Bell Flicks) programming language for bitmap computer-produced movies, created using an IBM 7094 computer and a Stromberg-Carlson 4020 microfilm recorder. Each frame contained eight shades of grey and a resolution of 252 x 184.Knowlton worked with artists including Michael Noll, Lillian Schwartz and Stan VanDerBeek. He and VanDerBeek created the Poem Field animations. Knowlton also created another programming language named EXPLOR (EXplicit Patterns, Local Operations and Randomness).cite web | url= | title=Mosaic Portraits: New Methods and Strategies | author=Ken Knowlton | work=PAGE 59 (Winter 2004/2005) | format=PDF | publisher= [ Computer Arts Society] ] [ [ Stills from "Pixillation" (1963), by Knowlton & Lillian Schwartz, programmed in BEFLIX] ] [ [ A Critical History of Computer Graphics and Animation: CGI Family Tree: Bell Labs] ]

In 1966, Knowlton and Leon Harmon were experimenting with photomosaic, creating large prints from collections small symbols or images. In "Studies in Perception I" they created an image of a reclining nude (the dancer Deborah Hay), by scanning a photograph with a camera and converting the analog voltages to binary numbers which were assigned typographic symbols based on halftone densities. It was printed in The New York Times on 11 October 1967, and exhibited at one of the earliest computer art exhibitions, "The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age", held Museum of Modern Art in New York City from November 25, 1968 through February 9, 1969. [ [ "Studies in Perception I" (1966), by Knowlton & Leon Harmon] ] [ [ A Critical History of Computer Graphics and Animation: Bell Labs] ]

Knowlton's work had been previously exhibited at "Cybernetic Serendipity", an exhibition held at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London from August 2 to October 20, 1968. [cite web |url = | format=PDF | title=Cybernetic Serendipity Revisited | author=Brent MacGregor]

ee also

Further reading

* Reichardt, Jasia. "Cybernetic Serendipity: the Computer and the Arts". London: Studio international, 1968. New York: Praeger, 1969. OCLC|13140
* Hultén, K.G. Pontus. "The Machine as Seen at the End of Mechanical Age". New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1968. OCLC|166480 OCLC|5561448
* Anderson, S.E., and John Halas. "Computer Animation". New York: Hastings House, 1974. OCLC|447407


External links

* [ Knowlton Mosaics]
* [ Ken Knowlton bio] , "Bell Labs & the Origins of the Multimedia Artist", 1998
* [ "Portait of the Artist as a Young Scientist", by Ken Knowlton] , Digital Art Guild, 2004
* [ Still from "Poem Fields" (1964), by Knowlton & Stan Vanderbeek]
* [ Images of "Studies in Perception 1" and "Studies in Perception: Gargoyle"; image of frame from "Poem Field"]
* [ Images created with patterns from a printer, by Michael Noll and Ken Knowlton of Bell Labs in New Jersey]

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