Ken Knowlton

Ken Knowlton

__NOTOC__Kenneth C. Knowlton (born 1931 in Springville, New York), is a computer graphics pioneer, artist, mosaicist and portraitist, who worked at Bell Labs.

In 1963, Knowlton developed the BEFLIX (Bell Flicks) programming language for bitmap computer-produced movies, created using an IBM 7094 computer and a Stromberg-Carlson 4020 microfilm recorder. Each frame contained eight shades of grey and a resolution of 252 x 184.Knowlton worked with artists including Michael Noll, Lillian Schwartz and Stan VanDerBeek. He and VanDerBeek created the Poem Field animations. Knowlton also created another programming language named EXPLOR (EXplicit Patterns, Local Operations and Randomness).cite web | url=http://lansdown.mdx.ac.uk/CAS/page/page59.pdf | title=Mosaic Portraits: New Methods and Strategies | author=Ken Knowlton | work=PAGE 59 (Winter 2004/2005) | format=PDF | publisher= [http://www.computer-arts-society.org/ Computer Arts Society] ] [ [http://translab.burundi.sk/code/vzx/index.htm#9 Stills from "Pixillation" (1963), by Knowlton & Lillian Schwartz, programmed in BEFLIX] ] [ [http://accad.osu.edu/~waynec/history/tree/bell.html A Critical History of Computer Graphics and Animation: CGI Family Tree: Bell Labs] ]

In 1966, Knowlton and Leon Harmon were experimenting with photomosaic, creating large prints from collections small symbols or images. In "Studies in Perception I" they created an image of a reclining nude (the dancer Deborah Hay), by scanning a photograph with a camera and converting the analog voltages to binary numbers which were assigned typographic symbols based on halftone densities. It was printed in The New York Times on 11 October 1967, and exhibited at one of the earliest computer art exhibitions, "The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age", held Museum of Modern Art in New York City from November 25, 1968 through February 9, 1969. [ [http://translab.burundi.sk/code/vzx/index.htm#18 "Studies in Perception I" (1966), by Knowlton & Leon Harmon] ] [ [http://accad.osu.edu/~waynec/history/lesson4.html#bell A Critical History of Computer Graphics and Animation: Bell Labs] ]

Knowlton's work had been previously exhibited at "Cybernetic Serendipity", an exhibition held at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London from August 2 to October 20, 1968. [cite web |url = http://accad.osu.edu/~waynec/history/PDFs/cyberserendipity.pdf | format=PDF | title=Cybernetic Serendipity Revisited | author=Brent MacGregor]

ee also

Further reading

* Reichardt, Jasia. "Cybernetic Serendipity: the Computer and the Arts". London: Studio international, 1968. New York: Praeger, 1969. OCLC|13140
* Hultén, K.G. Pontus. "The Machine as Seen at the End of Mechanical Age". New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1968. OCLC|166480 OCLC|5561448
* Anderson, S.E., and John Halas. "Computer Animation". New York: Hastings House, 1974. OCLC|447407

References

External links

* [http://www.knowltonmosaics.com/ Knowlton Mosaics]
* [http://www.asci.org/BellLabs/knowlton.html Ken Knowlton bio] , "Bell Labs & the Origins of the Multimedia Artist", 1998
* [http://www.digitalartguild.com/content/view/26/26/ "Portait of the Artist as a Young Scientist", by Ken Knowlton] , Digital Art Guild, 2004
* [http://translab.burundi.sk/code/vzx/index.htm#14 Still from "Poem Fields" (1964), by Knowlton & Stan Vanderbeek]
* [http://pratt.edu/~llaurola/cg550/cg.htm Images of "Studies in Perception 1" and "Studies in Perception: Gargoyle"; image of frame from "Poem Field"]
* [http://accad.osu.edu/~waynec/history/tree/images/pages/bell_jpg.htm Images created with patterns from a printer, by Michael Noll and Ken Knowlton of Bell Labs in New Jersey]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Leon Harmon — Leon D. Harmon (November 28, 1922 July 1982) was a cyberneticist who worked at Bell Labs.Harmon started his career as a radio serviceman and electronics hobbiest. In 1950, he went to work as a wireman on the IAS machine at the Institute for… …   Wikipedia

  • ASCII art — Oldskool or Amiga style Newskool style …   Wikipedia

  • Stan Vanderbeek — (January 6 1927 September 19 1984) was an American experimental filmmaker.VanDerBeek studied art and architecture first at Cooper Union College in New York and then at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, where he met architect Buckminster… …   Wikipedia

  • Poem Field — is the name of a series of 8 computer generated animations by Stan VanDerBeek and Ken Knowlton in 1964 1967. The animations were programmed in a language called Beflix (short for Bell Flicks ), which was developed by Knowlton.It is notable as a… …   Wikipedia

  • Carlo H. Sequin — Dr. Carlo Heinrich Séquin (born October 30 1941 in Zurich in Switzerland) was originally a physicist and has been a professor of Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley in the USA since 1980. Séquin is recognized as one of the… …   Wikipedia

  • BEFLIX — is the name of the first specialised computer animation language, invented by Ken Knowlton at Bell Labs in 1963. The name derives from a combination of Bell Flicks .External links* [http://creativetechnology.salford.ac.uk/fuchs/modules/input… …   Wikipedia

  • Unistable polyhedron — An unistable polyhedron is stable on only one face . The simplest such polyhedron known requires 19 faces and was discovered independently by Richard Guy and Ken Knowlton around 1959.External links* …   Wikipedia

  • Computer Arts Society — The Computer Arts Society (CAS) was founded in 1968, in order to encourage the creative use of computers in the arts.[1][2] Contents 1 Foundation 2 Early activities …   Wikipedia

  • Computer graphics — This article is about graphics created using computers. For the article about the scientific study of computer graphics, see Computer graphics (computer science). For other uses, see Computer graphics (disambiguation). A Blender 2.45 screenshot,… …   Wikipedia

  • Geschichte der Computergrafik — Die Geschichte der Computergrafik, der computergestützten Erzeugung von Bildern, wurde insgesamt eher von neuen Entwicklungen im Hardware als im Softwarebereich beeinflusst.[1] In den 1950er Jahren wurden einige der ersten Computer mit… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”