- Third Air Force
Infobox Military Unit
unit_name= Third Air Force
caption= Third Air Force emblem
19 December 1940-Present
United States of America
United States Air Force
United States Air Forces in Europe
current_commander= Lieutenant General Philip M. Breedlove [http://www.af.mil/library/biographies/bio.asp?bioID=7751]
Ramstein Air Base
Third Air Force is a
numbered air force(NAF) of the United States Air Forces in Europe(USAFE). It is headquartered at Ramstein Air Base, Germany. It is USAFE's component numbered air force for United States European Command.
Third Air Force is one of two numbered air forces in USAFE and responsible for all United States Air Force operations and support activities north of the
Alps. As an integral part of America's commitment to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO), Third Air Force's area of responsibility includes missions and personnel in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourgand portions of France.
The command also serves as Headquarters European Command's "single point of contact" for representing U.S. forces in negotiations with the British government, Third Air Force oversees host nation support agreements for all American military forces based in the United Kingdom through the command's 3 AF-UK headquarters at
Through the Partnership for Peace program, Third Air Force manages military contact and assistance programs for a number of countries in
Eastern Europe. Third Air Force is also responsible for contingency planning and support of American security interests in Africa.
It is composed of more than 25,000 military people, and more than 35,000 family members. Third Air Force is assigned more than 200 aircraft, while tasked to provide support servicing to thousands of other transient aircraft that visit its bases each year.
Major operational units under Third Air Force are:
31st Fighter Wing Aviano Air Base Italy(F-16C/D)
48th Fighter Wing RAF Lakenheath United Kingdom(F-15C/D, F-15E)
52d Fighter Wing Spangdahlem Air Base Germany(A-10, F-16C/D)
86th Airlift Wing Ramstein Air Base Germany(C-130, C-20, C-21A, C-37A)
100th Air Refueling Wing RAF Mildenhall United Kingdom(KC-135R)
435th Air Base Wing Ramstein Air Base Germany
501st Combat Support Wing RAF Mildenhall United Kingdom
In addition, there are numerous minor units assigned to Third Air Force by HQ USAFE.
* 603d Air and Space Operations Center
* 603d Support Group
* 4th Air Support Operations Group
Third Air Force was one of the original numbered air forces of the
United States Army Air Forces. It was activated at MacDill Field, Florida, on 18 Dec 18, 1940. During World War II, it provided air defense and conducted combat training for personnel of newly-formed units in the United States. After the war it served the newly-established Tactical Air Command, then was inactivated on 1 Nov 1946. It was returned to active service on 1 May 1951, at South RuislipAir Station, England, as one of the tactical air forces in Europe. It served continuously until again being inactivated on 1 Nov 2005. The command was reactivated on 1 Dec 2006.
* Established as Southeast Air District on 19 Oct 1940: Activated on 18 Dec 1940: Redesignated: 3 Air Force on 26 Mar 1941: Redesignated: Third Air Force on 18 Sep 1942: Inactivated on 1 Nov 1946
* Activated and organized on 1 May 1951: Inactivated on 1 Nov 2005
* Redesignated Third Air Force (Air Forces Europe) on 29 Nov 2006: Activated on 1 Dec 2006.
* General Headquarters Air Force : (later, Air Force Combat Command), 18 Dec 1940
* Eastern Theater of Operations, 24 Dec 1941
* Air Force Combat Command : (later,
United States Army Air Forces), 5 Jan 1942
Continental Air Forces, 13 Dec 1944
Tactical Air Command, 21 Mar 1946-1 Nov 1946
United States Air Forces in Europe, 1 May 1951-1 Nov 2005, 1 Dec 2006-.
* MacDill Field,
Florida, 18 Dec 1940
Tampa, Florida, 8 Jan 1941
* Greenville AAB, 28 Mar 1946-1 Nov 1946
* Victoria Park Estate : (later, U.S. Air Base, South Ruislip; South Ruislip Air Station),
England, 1 May 1951
RAF Mildenhall, England, 15 Apr 1972-1 Nov 2005: Ramstein AB, Germany, 1 Dec 2006-.
* 1 Ground Air Support : (later, I Air Support; I Tactical Air Division; III Tactical Air Division; III Reconnaissance):12 Aug 1942-21 Mar 1946: II Air Support (later, II Tactical Air Division): 25 Jan 1943-25 Oct 1945. : 3 Air Force Service (later, 3 Air Force Base): 1 Oct 1941-19 May 1942: 3 Air Support: 1 Sep 1941-16 Mar 1942: 3 Bomber (later, III Bomber): 5 Sep 1941-21 Mar 1946: 3 Interceptor (later, III Interceptor; III Fighter): 17 Jun 1941-21 Mar 1946: III Ground Air Support (later, III Air Support; III Reconnaissance; III Tactical Air): 27 May 1942-24 Oct 1945.
* 49 Air: 5 Jun 1952-1 Jul 1956.
World War II
Headquartered at MacDill Army Airfield,
Floridaduring World War II, Third Air Force initially provided air defense for the southeastern United States (1940-1941) and flew antisubmarine patrols along coastal areas of the Atlantic Oceanand Gulf of Mexicofrom after Pearl Harbor until October 1942. In addition, the command performed training through Army Air Forces Training Command of units, crews, and individuals for bombardment, fighter, and reconnaissance operations.
After October 1942, the antisubmarine patrols were turned over to the
Coast Guardand other agencies and the command was engaged primarily in training replacements for combat units.
In 1944, the majority of the
Numbered Air Forces of the USAAF were fighting in various parts of the world, such as the EighthAir Force in Europe and the Twentieth Air Forcein the Pacific. They were supported by four numbered air forces located within the United States(known as the Zone of the Interior, or "ZI".) On 13 December 1944, First, Second, Third and Fourth Air Force were all were placed under the unified command of the Continental Air Forces, the predecessor of the later established Strategic Air Command, Tactical Air Command, and Air Defense Command, which were all established in 1946.
When the Army Air Forces reorganized in 1946,
Tactical Air Command(TAC) was established as one of it's three major commands. The USAAF Troop Carrier Command (TCC) was inactivated as part of this reorganization and Third Air Force was reassigned to TAC to control the troop carrier units formerly part of TCC. It was headquartered at Greenville AAF, South Carolina. The C-46 Commandoand C-47 Skytrainwere the primary troop carrier aircraft, but surplus C-54 Skymasters that had been originally purchased for the Air Transport Command (ATC) were made available for troop carrier use.
Third Air Force was inactivated on
1 November 1946and TAC's troop carrier mission was reassigned to Ninth Air Forcewith its return from Europe and reassignment to Donaldson.
With Allied victory in Europe and the end of World War II came the demobilization and withdrawal of all U.S. Air Force units from the United Kingdom. By the end of 1945, both wartime air forces in the UK, the Eighth and Ninth were withdrawn. Their absence, however, was short lived.
3d Air Division
In August 1948, in response to the
Berlin blockade, the U.S. deployed long-range B-29 Superfortressstrategic bombers to four East Anglian bases. The USAFE 3d Air Division was activated to receive, support and operationally control the B-29 units deployed in England for training. It also provided aircraft maintenance support at RAF Burtonwoodfor C-54 Skymasteraircraft used in the Berlin Airlift. When the Berlin Airlift ended in 1949, the division participated in the Military Assistance Program in England and began an extensive air base construction program through May 1951
Briefly elevated to the
Major Commandlevel from 3 Jan 1949-21 Jan 1951, the 3d Air Division controlled large numbers of USAF organizations based in the United Kingdom and supervised a tremendous airfield construction program.
However With the advent of the
Korean Warand the growing Cold Warthreat of the Soviet Union, the U.S. and UK agreed to an even greater U.S. military presence in the United Kingdom. The resulting growing size and complexity of the American military presence required a larger command and organizational structure that could meet the needs of the increased operations.
Reactivation of Third Air Force
In early 1951 two USAF organizations were activated in England. One to conduct strategic operations, and one to conduct tactical, logistics and support programs.
The 3d Air Division was discontinued on 1 May 1951, and in its place the USAFE Third Air Force was activated to oversee tactical air operations. The
Strategic Air Command7th Air Division controlled deployed bombardment and reconnaissance forces with Third Air Force providing its logistical support. From its headquarters at South Ruislip Air Station near London, Third Air Force carried out that mission basically unchanged through 1966, when the 7th Air Division was inactivated.
Tactical Air Operations
The first tactical unit to come to England under Third Air Force was the 81st Fighter Bomber Wing based at
RAF Bentwaterson 6 September 1951. The next assigned unit was the 20th Fighter Bomber Wing, assigned to RAF Wethersfield. These Republic F-84 Thunderjet/Thunderchief and North American F-86 Sabre units worked with Royal Air ForceFighter Command providing air defense for England. In addition, the attached Tactical Air Command47th Bombardment Wing flew B-45 Tornadoand B-66 Destroyertactical bombers from RAF Sculthorpeand RAF Alconbury.
49th Air Divisionfunctioned as the intermediate-level command authority for USAFE's wings in the UK, no operational combat groups were attached. The division supervised and participated in numerous training missions such as Quick Shot, Kingpin, and Bear Claw. it was inactivated on 1 Jul 1956
During the 1960s, Third Air Force has four to five combat wings and major changes occurred in the types of aircraft deployed in the United Kingdom. North American F-100 Super Sabres, McDonnell F-101 Voodoos, and McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs replaced older fighter aircraft. Boeing KC-135 Stratotankers replaced older refueling aircraft.
In June 1972, daily operational control of tactical units in the United Kingdom was transferred to Headquarters USAFE at
Wiesbaden Air Base, West Germany. Third Air Force still retained command of the units, but as a result of the change, the headquarters was reorganized, reduced in personnel strength, and moved to RAF Mildenhall, United Kingdom.
In 1979, NATO ministers decided to deploy BGM-109G Gryphon Ground Launched Cruise and Pershing II IRBM missiles to counter the growing Soviet SS-20 intermediate range ballistic missile threat.
RAF Greenham Commonand RAF Molesworthwere selected as the beddown sites for the GLCM. The 501st Tactical Missile Wing (TMW) was activated at RAF Greenham Common in July 1982 and the 303d Tactical Missile Wing at RAF Molesworth in December 1986. In June 1987, Headquarters USAFE delegated tactical control of Third Air Force units to the Third Air Force commander.
15 April 1986, General Dynamics F-111aircraft based at RAF Lakenheathand RAF Upper Heyfordwere launched against suspected terrorist targets in Libya, as part of Operation Eldorado Canyon.
With the signing of the
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treatyin December 1987, GLCMs deployed to RAF Molesworth were removed to the U.S. and the 303rd TMW inactivated 30 January 1989. The last GLCMs at RAF Greenham Common were removed in March 1991, and the 501st TMW inactivated 4 June 1991.
Iraqinvaded Kuwaitin August 1990, Third Air Force, like many other U.S. military units, received their trial by fire. However, for Third Air Force, the scenario was not similar to any which had been practiced in the past. Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm were not classic East-West confrontations in Europethat Third Air Force had been trained for. Thousands of miles removed from the Kuwait theater of operations, Third Air Force played a major support role, deploying half its combat aircraft, several thousand vehicles, approximately 50,000 tons of munitions, and many more tons of supplies and material. Third Air Force also provided 2,250 hospital beds by activating three of its contingency hospitals and was ready in the event of a large number of casualties were received.
Post Cold War
The end of the
Cold Warwith the former Soviet Unionleft in its wake many new military challenges, tensions and emerging conflicts. It also drew attention to the need for American military forces to operate in ways and locations outside the traditional NATO construct. The shift in East-West relations and the increasing focus toward Eastern Europe, the southern region and the Middle Eastled to a changing of the focus of Third Air Force as well.
Recognizing that the threat to
NATOwas significantly reduced with the end of the Cold War, the U.S. Congress mandated large reductions in the American military budget and American military troop strength based in Europe. From a Cold War high of 450,000 in the late 1980s, American troop strength in Europe was reduced to 100,000 by the mid-1990s.
During the 1990s the USAF restructured itself to meet the emerging needs of the new world order. Several Third Air Force units returned to the U.S., and several more were inactivated. Third Air Force returned many of its bases to the British Ministry of Defence, and scaled down operations at other places.
In March 1996, Headquarters USAFE announced a major reorganization of its numbered air forces. The announcement included news of the inactivation of
Seventeenth Air Forceat Sembach Air Base Germany, transferring its responsibility for overseeing all U.S. Air Force units north of the Alpsto Third Air Force. As a result of the changes, Third Air Force grew substantially, taking on two main operating bases, Ramstein Air Baseand Spangdahlem Air Base, both in Germany, and five geographically separated units.
With this 1996 reorganization, Third Air Force was composed of more than 25,000 military people, and more than 35,000 family members. In terms of numbers of aircraft, Third Air Force had more than 200, including KC-135 and F-15 aircraft at bases in England, and A-10, F-16, C-9, C-20, C-21 and C-130E aircraft in Germany.
In addition to a larger area of responsibility, the command reorganization also brought about a subtle change in the mission of the Third Air Force headquarters element. Third Air Force was tasked to take a more active role in the leadership of operational contingencies, and provide trained staff to lead or augment joint and combined task force headquarters elements.
In 2005, USAFE once again realigned its numbered air forces.
Sixteenth Air Forcewas aligned as the command's new Warfighting Headquarters. Third Air Force was inactivated on Nov. 1, ending the unit's prestigious 50-plus year legacy in the UK.
Just over a year after inactivation, Third Air Force was reactivated on 1 Dec 2006, at
Ramstein AB, Germany, as USAFE's Air and Space Operations supporting U.S. European Command. Its new mission was to support the EUCOM commander's strategic objectives across the full range of military operations. When a joint task force is created in EUCOM, the Third Air Force commander is ready to assume the roles of Joint Forces Air Component Commander and Commander Air Forces, or lead the JTF as a Joint Force Commander.
United States Air Forces in Europe
* Much of this text in an early version of this article was taken from pages on the [http://www.3af.usafe.af.mil/ Third Air Force] website, which as a work of the U.S. Government is presumed to be a
public domain resource.
* Fletcher, Harry R. (1989) Air Force Bases Volume II, Active Air Force Bases outside the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0912799536
* Lloyd, Alwyn T. (2000) A Cold War Legacy, A Tribute to Strategic Air Command, 1946-1992, Pictorial Histories Pub ISBN 1575100525
* Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories 1947-1977. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0912799129.
* Steijger, Cees (1991), A History of USAFE, Airlife Publishing Limited, ISBN 1-85310-075-7
* [http://home.att.net/~jbaugher/usafserials.html] USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers--1908 to Present
* [http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?storyID=123033513 US Air Force news story on Third Air Force reactivation]
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