Arbovirus is a shortened name given to viruses that are transmitted by arthropods, or arthropod-borne viruses [cite web |url= http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/arbor/arbdet.htm |title= CDC Information on Arboviral Encephalitides | accessdate=2007-02-07 ] .
Some Arboviruses are able to cause emergent disease. Arthropods are able to transmit the virus upon biting allowing the virus to enter the
bloodstreamwhich can cause viraemia.
The majority of the Arboviruses are spherical in shape although a few are rod shaped. They are 17-150 nm in diameter and all have a
RNAgenome. These viruses do not normally infect humans but if they do, they usually cause a mild infectionsuch as a feveror a rash. Others however are epidemicand can cause serious infections such as meningitisand encephalitisthat can be fatal.
There are ways of preventing these infections from occurring such as using mosquito repellents and getting rid of the breeding grounds that mosquitoes use.
Insecticidescan also be used. People can also reduce the risk of getting bitten by the mosquito by wearing protective clothing.
immune systemplays a role in defense against the infections. Arboviruses usually stimulate interferon. Antibodies are made and these can prevent viraemiafrom occurring. The cell mediated immunity is also important.
Arbovirus infections can be diagnosed by carrying out
ELISAand PCR techniques. Complement fixation can also be used.
List of arboviruses (not complete)
Ross River virus
Vesicular stomatitis virus
West Nile virus
La Crosse Encephalitis
Murray Valley encephalitis virus
Rift Valley fever
St. Louis Encephalitis
Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease(EHD) of deer
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