- Sugar Pine
name = Sugar Pine
status = LR/lc | status_system = IUCN2.3
image_width = 240px
image_caption = Sugar Pine cones and needles
classis = Pinopsida
genus = "Pinus"
subgenus = "Strobus"
species = "P. lambertiana"
binomial = "Pinus lambertiana"
binomial_authority = Douglas
range_map_width = 240px
range_map_caption = Range
The Sugar Pine ("Pinus lambertiana"; family
Pinaceae) is a species of pinethat occurs in the mountains of Oregonand Californiain the western United States, and Baja Californiain northwestern Mexico; specifically the Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Range, the Coast Ranges, and the Sierra San Pedro Martir.
This tree is the largest species of pine, commonly growing to 40-60 meters (130-200 feet) tall, exceptionally up to 81 m (265 ft) tall, and with a trunk diameter of 1.5-2.5 m (5-8 ft), exceptionally 3.5 m (11 ft).
It is a member of the white pine group, "Pinus" subgenus "Strobus", and like all members of that group, the leaves ('needles') are in fascicles (bundles) of five, with a deciduous sheath. They are 6-11 cm (2-4 inch) long. Sugar Pine is notable for having the longest cones of any conifer, mostly 25-50 cm (10-20 in) long, exceptionally up to 66 cm (26 in) long (although the cones of the
Coulter pineare more massive). The seeds are 10-12 mm (0.4-0.5 in) long, with a 2-3 cm (0.75-1.2 in) long wing that aids wind dispersal.
The Sugar Pine has been severely affected by the
White Pine Blister Rust("Cronartium ribicola"), a fungus that was accidentally introduced from Europe in 1909. A high proportion of the Sugar Pine has been killed by the blister rust, particularly in the northern part of the species' range that has experienced the rust for a longer period of time. The rust has also destroyed much of the Western White Pineand Whitebark Pinethroughout their ranges. [http://www.caforestpestcouncil.org/2005%20CFPC%20Meeting/1506%20Maloney_Dunlap%2005BR%20Survey.pdf] The U.S. Forest Servicehas a program (see link below) for developing rust-resistant Sugar Pine and Western White Pine. Seedlings of these trees have been introduced into the wild. The Sugar Pine Foundation in the Lake TahoeBasin has been successful in finding resistant sugar pine seed trees and has demonstrated that it is important for private citizens to assist the U.S. Forest Service in restoring this species. [http://www.sugarpinefoundation.org]
John Muirconsidered Sugar Pine to be the "king of the conifers". The name comes from the sweet resin, which Muir found preferable to maple sugar. [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1016/is_n11-12_v97/ai_11499965]
Achumawi creation myth, Annikadel, the creator, makes one of the 'First People' by intentionally dropping a Sugar Pine seed in a place suitable for growth. One of the descendants in this ancestryis Sugarpine-Cone man, who has a handsome son named Ahsoballache.
After Ahsoballache marries the daughter of To'kis the Chipmunk-woman, his grandfather insists that the new couple have a child. To this end, the grandfather breaks open a scale from a Sugar Pine cone, and secretly instructs Ahsoballache to immerse the scale's contents in spring water and hide it inside a covered
basket. Ahsoballache performs the tasks that night; at the next dawn, he and his wife discover the infant Edechewenear their bed.
References and external links
* [http://www.na.fs.fed.us/Spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_1/pinus/lambertiana.htm US Forestry Service: Pinus lambertiana]
* [http://www.pinetum.org/cones/PNlambertiana.jpgArboretum de Villardebelle: photo of a cone]
* [http://www.conifers.org/pi/pin/lambertiana.htm Gymnosperm Database: "Pinus lambertiana"]
* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233500939 Flora of North America: "Pinus lambertiana"]
* [http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/dorena/rust/index.shtml US Forest Service, Dorena Genetic Resource Center (rust resistance program)]
* [http://www.sugarpinefoundation.org The Sugar Pine Foundation (Sugar Pine and Western White Pine Restoration Program)]
* Muir, J. (1911). "
My First Summer in the Sierra".
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