Baud

Baud

In telecommunications and electronics, baud (pronEng|ˈbɔːd, unit symbol "Bd") is synonymous to "symbols/s" or "pulses/s". It is the unit of symbol rate, also known as "baud rate" or "modulation rate"; the number of distinct symbol changes (signalling events) made to the transmission medium per second in a digitally modulated signal or a line code. The baud rate is related to but should not be confused with gross bit rate expressed in bit/s.

The symbol duration time, also known as unit interval, can be directly measured as the time between transitions by looking into an eye diagram of an oscilloscope. The symbol duration time "T"s can be calculated as:

:$T_s = \left\{1 over f_s\right\},$

where "f"s is the symbol rate.

:A simple example: A baud rate of 1 kBd = 1,000 Bd is synonymous to a symbol rate of 1,000 symbols per second. In case of a modem, this corresponds to 1,000 tones per second, and in case of a line code, this corresponds to 1,000 pulses per second. The symbol duration time is 1/1,000 second = 1 millisecond. The baud unit is named after Emile Baudot, the inventor of the Baudot code for telegraphy, and is represented as SI units are. That is, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (Bd), but when the unit is spelled out, it should be written in lowercase (baud) except when it begins a sentence.

Relationship to gross bit rate

The symbol rate is related to but should not be confused with gross bit rate expressed in bit/s.

The term baud rate has sometimes incorrectly been used to mean bit rate, since these rates are the same in old modems as well as in the simplest digital communication links using only one bit per symbol, such that binary "0" is represented by one symbol, and binary "1" by another symbol. In more advanced modems and data transmission techniques, a symbol may have more than two states, so it may represent more than one binary bit (a binary bit always represents one of exactly two states).

If "N" bits are conveyed per symbol, and the gross bit rate is "R", inclusive of channel coding overhead, the symbol rate can be calculated as:

:$f_s = \left\{R over N\right\}.$

In that case "M"=2"N" different symbols are used. In a modem, these may be sinewave tones with unique combinations of amplitude, phase and/or frequency. For example, in a 64QAM modem, "M"=64. In a line code, these may be "M" different voltage levels.

By taking information per pulse "N" in bit/pulse to be the base-2-logarithm of the number of distinct messages "M" that could be sent, Hartley [cite book | title = Information Theory; and its Engineering Applications | author = D. A. Bell | edition = 3rd ed. | year = 1962 | publisher = Pitman | location = New York] constructed a measure of the gross bitrate "R" as:

:$R = f_s log_2\left(M\right), ,$

where "f""s" is the baud rate in symbols/second or pulses/second. (See Hartley's law).

ee also

* bandwidth
* Bitrate
* Constellation diagram, which shows (on a graph or 2D oscilloscope image) how a given signal state (a symbol) can represent three or more bits at once.
* Modulation
* Modem
* Nyquist rate
* List of device bandwidths
* PCM

References

* cite web
title=On the origins of serial communications and data encoding
url=http://www.compkarori.com/dbase/bu07sh.htm
accessmonthday=January 4
accessyear=2007

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Look at other dictionaries:

• baud — baud …   Dictionnaire des rimes

• baud — [ bo ] n. m. • 1929; de Baudot, n. d un ingénieur des télégraphes ♦ Télécomm. Unité de mesure de la vitesse de modulation d un signal. Les lignes téléphoniques permettent une vitesse de 2 400 bauds. Modem fonctionnant à 28 800 bauds. ⊗ HOM. Bau,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

• Baud — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Baud Baod País …   Wikipedia Español

• Baud — 〈a. [bo:d] n.; s, ; 〉 Maßeinheit für die Telegrafiegeschwindigkeit, für die Übertragungsgeschwindigkeit von Datenverarbeitungsanlagen, 1 Bit/Sekunde [nach dem frz. Ingenieur E. Baudot, 1845 1903] * * * Baud [ba̮ut , bo:t ], das; [s], [nach dem… …   Universal-Lexikon

• baud — s. m. [au pron. fr. o], pl. bauzi Trimis de siveco, 10.08.2004. Sursa: Dicţionar ortografic ﻿ BAUD s.m. Unitate de viteză în transmisiunile telegrafice, corespunzând transmiterii unui punct din alfabetul Morse pe secundă. [pron. bo. / < fr.… …   Dicționar Român

• baud — baud·e·lair·ean; ki·lo·baud; baud; baud·e·lair·ian; …   English syllables

• baud — aud (b[add]d or b[^o]d), n. [Named after J. M. E. Baudot, a French inventor, died 1903.] (Computers, telecommunications) A unit of transmission speed for information conveyed over a digital communications channel, usually taken as equal to the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• baud — sb. (fk.), baud (en måleenhed) …   Dansk ordbog

• Baud — (spr. Bod), Stadt im Bezirk Pontivy des französischen Departements Morbihan; 5150 Ew …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

• baud — Mot Monosíl·lab Nom masculí …   Diccionari Català-Català

• baud — s.m.inv. TS telecom., metrol., inform. unità di misura della velocità telegrafica e telefonica pari a un bit al secondo (simb. B) {{line}} {{/line}} DATA: 1937. ETIMO: tratto da Baudot, nome dell inventore francese Jean Maurice Émile Baudot (1845 …   Dizionario italiano