- Pure mathematics
Broadly speaking, pure mathematics is
mathematicsmotivated entirely for reasons other than application. It is distinguished by its rigour, abstraction and beauty. From the eighteenth centuryonwards, this was a recognized category of mathematical activity, sometimes characterised as "speculative mathematics", [See for example titles of works by Thomas Simpsonfrom the mid-18th century: "Essays on Several Curious and Useful Subjects in Speculative and Mixed Mathematicks", "Miscellaneous Tracts on Some Curious and Very Interesting Subjects in Mechanics, Physical Astronomy and Speculative Mathematics". [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Thomas_Simpson] ] and at variance with the trend towards meeting the needs of navigation, astronomy, physics, engineering, and so on.
Ancient Greek mathematicians were among the earliest to make a distinction between pure and applied mathematics. Plato helped to create the gap between "arithmetic", now called
Number theory, and "logistic", now called arithmetic. Platoregarded logistic as appropriate for business men and men of war who "must learn the art of numbers or he will not know how to array his troops," while arithmetic was appropriate for philosophers "because he has to arise out of the sea of change and lay hold of true being." [cite book|first=Carl B. |last=Boyer |authorlink=Carl Benjamin Boyer |title=A History of Mathematics |edition=Second Edition |publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. |year=1991 |isbn=0471543977|chapter=The age of Plato and Aristotle|pages=86|quote=Plato is important in the history of mathematics largely for his role as inspirer and director of others, and perhaps to him is due the sharp distinction in ancient Greece between arithmetic (in the sense of the theory of numbers) and logistic (the technique of computation). Plato regarded logistic as appropriate for the businessman and for the man of war, who "must learn the art of numbers or he will not know how to array his troops." The philosopher, on the other hand, must be an arithmetician "because he has to arise out of the sea of change and lay hold of true being."] Euclid of Alexandria, when asked by one of his students of what use was the study of geometry, asked his slave to give the student threepence, "since he must needs make gain of what he learns." [cite book|first=Carl B. |last=Boyer |authorlink=Carl Benjamin Boyer |title=A History of Mathematics |edition=Second Edition |publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. |year=1991 |isbn=0471543977|chapter=Euclid of Alexandria |pages=101 |quote=Evidently Euclid did not stress the practical aspects of his subject, for there is a tale told of him that when one of his students asked of what use was the study of geometry, Euclid asked his slave to hive the student threepence, "since he must needs make gain of what he learns."] The Greek mathematician Apollonius of Pergawas asked about the usefulness of some of his theorems in Book IV of "Conics" to which he proudly asserted,cite book|first=Carl B. |last=Boyer |authorlink=Carl Benjamin Boyer |title=A History of Mathematics |edition=Second Edition |publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc. |year=1991 |isbn=0471543977|chapter=Apollonius of Perga|pages=152|quote=It is in connection with the theorems in this book that Apollonius makes a statement implying that in his day, as in ours, there were narrow-minded opponents of pure mathematics who pejoratively inquired about the usefulness of such results. The author proudly asserted: "They are worthy of acceptance for the sake of the demonstrations themselves, in the same way as we accept many other things in mathematics for this and for no other reason." (Heath 1961, p.lxxiv).
The preface to Book V, relating to maximum and minimum straight lines drawn to a conic, again argues that "the subject is one of those which seems worthy of study for their own sake." While one must admire the author for his lofty intellectual attitude, it may be pertinently pointed out that s day was beautiful theory, with no prospect of applicability to the science or engineering of his time, has since become fundamental in such fields as terrestrial dynamics and celestial mechanics.]
They are worthy of acceptance for the sake of the demonstrations themselves, in the same way as we accept many other things in mathematics for this and for no other reason.And since many of his results were not applicable to the science or engineering of his day, Apollonius further argued in the preface of the fifth book of "Conics" that "the subject is one of those which seems worthy of study for their own sake."
The term itself is enshrined in the full title of the Sadleirian Chair, founded (as a professorship) in the mid-
nineteenth century. The idea of a separate discipline of "pure" mathematics may have emerged at that time. The generation of Gauss made no sweeping distinction of the kind, between "pure" and "applied". In the following years, specialisation and professionalisation (particularly in the Weierstrassapproach to mathematical analysis) started to make a rift more apparent.
At the start of the
twentieth centurymathematicians took up the axiomatic method, strongly influenced by David Hilbert's example. The logical formulation of pure mathematics suggested by Bertrand Russellin terms of a quantifierstructure of propositions seemed more and more plausible, as large parts of mathematics became axiomatised and thus subject to the simple criteria of " rigorous proof".
In fact in an axiomatic setting "rigorous" adds nothing to the idea of "proof". Pure mathematics, according to a view that can be ascribed to the
Bourbakigroup, is what is proved. Pure mathematician became a recognized vocation, to be achieved through training.
Generality and abstraction
One central concept in pure mathematics is the idea of generality; pure mathematics often exhibits a trend towards increased generality. Generality has many different manifestations, such as proving theorems under weaker assumptions, or defining mathematical structures using fewer assumptions. Although generality is sometimes pursued or valued for its own sake, it has certain benefits, including:
* Generalizing theorems or mathematical structures can lead to deeper understanding of the original theorems or structures: by exploring the implications of weakening the assumptions, one gains a better understanding of the role those assumptions play in the original theorems or structures.
* Generality can simplify the presentation of material, resulting in shorter proofs or arguments that are easier to follow.
* One can use generality to avoid duplication of effort, proving a general result instead of having to prove separate cases independently, or using results from other areas of mathematics.
* Generality can facilitate connections between different branches of mathematics, by emphasizing commonality of structure that may not be apparent at less general levels.
Category theoryis one area of mathematics dedicated to exploring this commonality of structure as it plays out in some areas of math.
Generality's impact on intuition is both dependent on the subject and a matter of personal preference or learning style. Often generality is seen as a hindrance to intuition, although it can certainly function as an aid to it, especially when it provides analogies to material for which one already has good intuition.
As a prime example of generality, the
Erlangen programinvolved an expansion of Geometryto accommodate Non-euclidean geometriesas well as the field of topology, and other forms of geometry, by viewing geometry as the study of a space together with a group of transformations. The study of numbers, called algebraat the beginning undergraduate level, extends to abstract algebraat a more advanced level; and the study of functions, called calculusat the college freshman level becomes mathematical analysisand functional analysisat a more advanced level. Each of these branches of more "abstract" mathematics have many sub-specialties, and there are in fact many connections between pure mathematics and applied mathematics disciplines. Undeniably, though, a steep rise in abstractionwas seen mid 20th century.
In practice, however, these developments led to a sharp divergence from
physics, particularly from 1950 to 1980. Later this was criticised, for example by Vladimir Arnold, as too much Hilbert, not enough Poincaré. The point does not yet seem to be settled (unlike the foundational controversies over set theory), in that string theorypulls one way, while discrete mathematicspulls back towards proof as central.
Mathematicians have always had differing opinions regarding the distinction between pure and applied mathematics. One of the most famous (but perhaps misunderstood) modern examples of this debate can be found in
G.H. Hardy's " A Mathematician's Apology".
It is widely believed that Hardy considered applied mathematics to be ugly and dull. Although it is true that Hardy preferred pure mathematics, which he often compared to
paintingand poetry, Hardy saw the distinction between pure and applied mathematics to be simply: that applied mathematics sought to express "physical" truth in a mathematical framework, whereas pure mathematics expressed truths that were independent of the physical world. Hardy made a separate distinction in mathematics between what he called "real" mathematics, "which has permanent aesthetic value", and "the dull and elementary parts of mathematics" that have practical use.
Hardy considered some physicists, such as Einstein and Dirac, to be among the "real" mathematicians, but at the time that he was writing the "Apology" he also considered
general relativityand quantum mechanicsto be "useless", which allowed him to hold the opinion that only "dull" mathematics was useful. Moreover, Hardy briefly admitted that--just as the application of matrix theory and group theory to physics had come unexpectedly--the time may come where some kinds of beautiful, "real" mathematics may be useful as well.
ubfields in pure mathematics
Analysis is concerned with the properties of functions. It deals with concepts such as continuity, limits, differentiation and integration, thus providing a rigorous foundation for the calculus of infinitesimals introduced by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century.
Real analysisstudies functions of real numbers, while complex analysisextends the aforementioned concepts to functions of complex numbers. Functional analysisis a branch of analysis that studies infinite-dimensional vector spaces and views functions as points in these spaces. Abstract algebrais not to be confused with the manipulation of formulae that is covered in secondary education. It studies sets together with binary operationsdefined on them. Sets and their binary operations may be classified according to their properties: for instance, if an operation is associativeon a set which contains an identity element and inverses for each member of the set, the set and operation is considered to be a group. Other structures include rings, fields and vector spaces. Geometryis the study of shapes and space, in particular, groups of transformations that act on spaces. For example, projective geometryis about the group of projective transformations that act on the real projective plane, whereas inversive geometryis concerned with the group of inversive transformations acting on the extended complex plane. Geometry has been extended to topology, which deals with objects known as topological spaces and continuous maps between them. Topology is concerned with the way in which a space is connected and ignores precise measurements of distance or angle. Number theoryis the theory of the positive integers. It is based on ideas such as divisibility and congruence. Its fundamental theorem states that each positive integer has a unique prime factorization. In some ways it is the most accessible discipline in pure mathematics for the general public: for instance the Goldbach conjectureis easily stated (but is yet to be proved or disproved). In other ways it is the least accessible discipline; for example, Wiles' proof that Fermat's equation has no nontrivial solutions requires understanding automorphic forms, which though intrinsic to nature have not found a place in Physics or in public discourse.
*"There is no branch of mathematics, however abstract, which may not someday be applied to the phenomena of the real world."
*"God does not care about our mathematical difficulties - he integrates empirically."
Difficulties in Pure Maths
* [http://www.math.uwaterloo.ca/PM_Dept/What_Is/what_is.shtml "What is Pure Mathematics?" Department of Pure Mathematics, University of Waterloo]
* [http://www.liv.ac.uk/maths/PURE/wipm.html " What is Pure Mathematics?" by Professor P.J. Giblin The University of Liverpool]
* [http://fair-use.org/bertrand-russell/the-principles-of-mathematics " The Principles of Mathematics " by Bertrand Russell]
* [http://hk.mathphy.googlepages.com/puremath.htm How to Become a Pure Mathematician (or Statistician)] - a List of Undergraduate and Basic Graduate Textbooks and Lecture Notes, with several comments and links to solution, companion site, data set, errata page, etc.
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