- Erroll Garner
Infobox musical artist
Name = Erroll Garner
Background = solo_singer
Birth_name = Erroll Louis Garner
Born = birth date|1921|6|15|mf=y
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Died = death date and age|1977|1|2|1921|6|15|mf=y
Jazz Piano Jazz
Years_active = 1944 - 1974
Mercury Records Columbia Records Verve Records Blue Note Records London Records
Erroll Louis Garner (
June 15 1921– January 2 1977) was an American jazz pianistand composerwhose distinctive joyful and melodic style brought him both popular acclaim and the admiration of peers.
Life and career
Born in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, U.S. in 1921, Erroll began playing piano at the age of 3. He attended George Westinghouse High School(as did fellow pianists Billy Strayhornand Ahmad Jamal). Garner was self-taught and remained an "ear player" all his life - he never learned to read music.John Wilson, [http://select.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F40915F9355B1A7B93C1A9178AD85F438785F9 "Erroll Garner, Jazz Pianist, 53; Composed 'Misty,' 'That's My Kick'"] , " New York Times", January 3, 1977, pg. 23.]
At the age of 7, Garner began appearing on radio station KDKA in
Pittsburghwith a group called the Candy Kids. By the age of 11, he was playing on the Allegheny riverboats. At age 14 in 1937 he joined local saxophonist Leroy Brown.
He played locally in the shadow of his older pianist brother
Linton Garnerand moved to New York in 1944. He briefly worked with the bassist Slam Stewart, and though not a bebopmusician "per se", in 1947 played with Charlie Parkeron the famous "Cool Blues" session. Although his admission to the Pittsburgh music union was initially refused because of his inability to read music, they eventually relented in 1956 and made him a honorary member.
Garner is credited with having a superb memory of music. After attending a concert by the Russian pianist
Emil Gilels, Garner returned to his apartment and was able to play a large portion of the performed music by recall.
Short in stature (5 foot 2 inches), Garner performed sitting on multiple telephone directories, except when playing in
New York City, where a Manhattan phone book was sufficient. John Wilson, [http://select.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F60B17FC345415738DDDA00A94DD405B858AF1D3 "Return of Erroll Garner; Phone Book Is Still His Prop at Village Gate"] , " New York Times", May 29, 1965, pg. 16.] He was also known for his occasional vocalizations while playing, which can be heard on many of his recordings. He is generally credited for having bridged the gap for jazz musicians between night clubs and the concert hall.
Garner's ear and technique owed as much to practice as to a natural gift. His distinctive style could swing like no other, but some of his best recordings are ballads, such as his best-known composition, "Misty". Although "Misty" rapidly became a standard with singers - and was famously featured in
Clint Eastwood's " Play Misty for Me" (1971) - it was never a favorite with fellow instrumentalists.
Garner may have been inspired by the example of
Earl Hines, a fellow Pittsburgh resident but 18 years his senior, and there were resemblances in their elastic approach to timing and the use of the right-hand octaves. Errol's style however, was unique and had neither obvious forerunners nor competent imitators although, at an amateur level, more players attempted to imitate him than any other pianist in jazz history. A key factor in his sound was the independence of his hands. Garner would often play behind or ahead of the beat with his right hand while his springy left had rocked steady, creating insouciance and tension in the music, which he would resolve by bringing the timing back into synch. The independence of his hands also was evidenced by his masterful use of three against four figures and more complicated cross rhythms between the hands. He also would play introductions to pieces that sometimes utilized cacophonous or just weird sounds unrelated to the number, but which produced a sense of excitement in the audience not knowing what he was up to. Whether in ultra slow ballads or rollicking up-tempo improvisation, this never failed to convey a humorous and titillating attitude to both the material at hand and the audience.
Erroll was a jazz musician through and through, his popular appeal arising directly from his playing. It was achieved without the aid of jocular vocals or ingratiating announcements, in the manner of
Louis Armstrongor Fats Waller(the only comparable figures in terms of earning universal affection), and it seems equally unlikely that he tailored his music to the demands of success.
Garner had established himself an international reputation, and from that point until his death on January 2, 1977, he made many tours both at home and abroad, and produced a large volume of recorded work.
Garner is buried in Pittsburgh's
His record recording career started out in the late 1940s when several 7" EP records were made with tracks such as "Fine and Dandy" and "Sweet 'n' lovely". However, his 1955 recording, "
Concert by the Sea", ranks among his most popular work and features Eddie Calhounon bass and Denzil Beston drums. Ironically this recording of a performance at an army base in Carmel, California, was made using relatively primitive sound equipment, but Garner's inventiveness and swing made its point in each tune. Other notable works include 1951's "Long Ago and Far Away" and 1974's "Magician", both of which see Erroll perform a number of classic standards in his own style. Often the trio was expanded to add Latin percussion, usually a conga, with electric results.
In 1964 Garner appeared in the UK on the music series "
Jazz 625" (625 referring to the PAL625-line format) broadcast on the BBC's new second channel. The programme was hosted by Steve Race, who introduced Garner's trio with Eddie Calhoun on bass and Kelly Martinon drums. While working the keyboard hard, Garner had perspiration streaming down his face as the programme made close shots of his hands.
What makes Garner's playing easy to recognize is his trademark introductions, which seem to make no sense until breaking dramatically into his exposition of the tune he will play, and the guitar strumming sound of his left hand, playing crotchet accompaniment to his rich sounding right hand. He places his chords and octaves on syncopated beats that swing very hard and can be used to build excellent tension, such as between phrases. The approach also suggests he was influenced by the iconic rhythm guitar work of
Count Basie's long time guitarist, Freddie Green. But discerning listeners could find that while his even four left hand was a fixture, it was far from being the only rhythmic approach he took to playing.
* of "Laura" by Erroll Garner
Erroll bridged the gap between stride and straight ahead styles. Often identified as a stride player, his right hand had the trappings of modernity, elements of Cole and Wilson delineations...He was one of our greatest anomalies, with hands barely reaching an octave, he cameto define a media filled with technical prowess on his own terms. His style might best be described as orchestral as his creations often maintained the energy and diversity of an entire band.
* "Giants of the Piano" (back to back with Art Tatum) (1947 Hollywood recordings with Red Callender and Hal West) Vogue LP LAE 12209
* "Erroll Garner" (August 1949) Los Angeles recordings with John Simmons, Alvin Stoller (2 Vols Joker LP BM 3718-3719)
* "Erroll Garner at the Piano" (1951-3 material) with Wyatt Ruther and Fats Heard, CBS reissue LP 62311
* "Mambo Moves Garner" (1954) Mercury MG20055
* "Misty (1954) Mercury 60662,
* "Concert by the Sea" (1956) Columbia CL535
* "Feeling is Believing" (1956) Columbia CL1014
* "Paris Impressions" (1958) Columbia #1216, double album,
* "Erroll Garner Amsterdam Concert" (Concert 7 November 1964) Philips LP BL7717/632 204 BL
* "Erroll Garner Plays" (1965) Ember LP FA 2011
* "That's my Kick" (1967) MGM SE4463
* "Gemini" (1972) London Records XPS617
* "Magician" (1974) London Records APS640
* "Play it Again Erroll" ( Reissued 1974) Columbia CL33424 double album
* "Body and Soul" (1991) Columbia CK47035
* [http://www.geocities.com/BourbonStreet/1542/garner.htm Fan Site]
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1774 Erroll Garner's Photo & Gravesite]
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