- Tilia cordata
name = "Tilia cordata"
image_caption = "Tilia cordata" leaves and flowers
genus = "
species = "T. cordata"
binomial = "Tilia cordata"
binomial_authority = Mill.|
"Tilia cordata" (Small-leaved Lime, occasionally Small-leaved Linden) is a species of "
Tilia" native to much of Europeand western Asia, north to southern Great Britain(north to about Durham), central Scandinavia, east to central Russia, and south to central Spain, Italy, Bulgariaand the Caucasus; in the south of its range it is restricted to high altitudes.Rushforth, K. (1999). "Trees of Britain and Europe". Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.] Den Virtuella Floran: [http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/di/tilia/tilia/tilicor.html "Tilia cordata" (in Swedish; with maps] ]
It is a
deciduous treegrowing to 20-38 m tall, with a trunk up to 1-2 m diameter. The leaves are alternately arranged, rounded to triangular-ovate, 3-8 cm long and broad, mostly hairless (unlike the related " Tilia platyphyllos") except for small tufts of brown hair in the leaf vein axils. The small yellow-green hermaphrodite flowers are produced in clusters of five to eleven in early summer with a leafy yellow-green subtending bract, have a rich, heavy scent; the trees are much visited by bees. The fruitis a dry nut-like drupe6–7 mm long and 4 mm broad, downy at first becoming smooth at maturity, and (unlike "T. platyphyllos") not ribbed.Flora of NW Europe: [http://ip30.eti.uva.nl/BIS/flora.php?selected=beschrijving&menuentry=soorten&id=2132 "Tilia cordata"] ]
It readily hybridises with "
Tilia platyphyllos"; the hybrid is named " Tilia × europaea" (syn. "T. × vulgaris").Flora of NW Europe: [http://ip30.eti.uva.nl/BIS/flora.php?selected=beschrijving&menuentry=soorten&id=2131 "Tilia vulgaris"] ]
Cultivation and uses
It is the national tree of the
Czech Republicand Republic of Slovakia.
"Tilia cordata" is widely grown as an
ornamental treethroughout its native range in Europe. It was much planted to form avenues in 17th and early 18th century landscape planning. A famous example is Unter den Lindenin Berlin.
It is also widely cultivated in
North Americaas a substitute for the native " Tilia americana" (Basswood or American Linden) which has a larger leaf, coarser in texture; there it has been renamed "Little-leaf Linden".
In countries of Central Europe, linden flowers are a traditional herbal remedy (linden flower tea), considered to be of value as an anti-inflammatory in range of respiratory problems: colds, fever,
flu, sore throat, bronchitis, cough and others [ [Flora Herb & Supplement Encyclopedia http://www.florahealth.com/flora/home/Canada/HealthInformation/Encyclopedias/LindenFlos.htm] ] .
A valuable monofloral
honeyis produced by bees using the trees. The young leaves can be eaten as a salad vegetable. [Vernon, J. (2007). Fruits of the forest. "The Garden" November 2007: 738. Royal Horticultural Society.]
The white, finely-grained
woodis a classic choice for refined woodcarvings such as those by Grinling Gibbonsor several prominent medieval altars.
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