Pseudorabies

Pseudorabies

Taxobox
virus_group = i
familia = "Herpesviridae"
genus = "Varicellovirus"
species = "Pseudorabies virus" ("Suid herpesvirus 1" (SHV-1))

Pseudorabies is a viral disease in swine that is endemic in most parts of the world. It is caused by "porcine herpesvirus 1", which is also called pseudorabies virus (PRV) or suid herpesvirus-1 (SHV-1) and is also known as Aujeszky's disease, and in cattle as mad itch. PRV is considered to be the most economically important viral disease of swine in areas where hog cholera has been eradicated.cite book|author=Fenner, Frank J.; Gibbs, E. Paul J.; Murphy, Frederick A.; Rott, Rudolph; Studdert, Michael J.; White, David O.|title=Veterinary Virology (2nd ed.)|publisher=Academic Press, Inc|year=1993|id=ISBN 0-12-253056-X]

Research on PRV in pigs has pioneered animal disease control with genetically modified vaccines. PRV is now extensively studied as a model for basic processes during lytic herpesvirus infection, and for unravelling molecular mechanisms of herpesvirus neurotropism.cite book |chapterurl=http://www.horizonpress.com/avir|author=Mettenleiter et al|year=2008|chapter=Molecular Biology of Animal Herpesviruses|title=Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology|publisher=Caister Academic Press|id= [http://www.horizonpress.com/avir ISBN 978-1-904455-22-6] ] cite book | author = Sandri-Goldin RM (editor). | title = Alpha Herpesviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology | publisher = Caister Academic Press | year = 2006 | url=http://www.horizonpress.com/ahv | id = [http://www.horizonpress.com/ahv ISBN 978-1-904455-09-7 ] ]

History

The earliest reports of a disease suspected to be pseudorabies were in 1813 in the United States, describing a condition in cattles characterized by severe itching and called "mad itch". In 1902 A Hungarian veterinarian, Aládar Aujeszky, isolated PRV from a dog, ox, and cat and showed that it caused the same the disease in swine and cite journal ">author=Pomeranz L, Reynolds A, Hengartner C |title=Molecular biology of pseudorabies virus: impact on neurovirology and veterinary medicine |journal=Microbiol Mol Biol Rev |volume=69 |issue=3 |pages=462–500 |year=2005 |pmid=16148307 |doi=10.1128/MMBR.69.3.462-500.2005]

Disease overview

for pseudorabies in the United States.
Present, Absent
The virus is shed in the saliva and nasal secretions of infected swine and is spread through oral or nasal contact. Aerosolization of the virus and transmission by fomites also may occur. The virus may potentially survive for seven hours in humid air and spread up to two kilometers. Furthermore, it may survive on well water for up to seven hours, in green grass, soil, and feces for up to two days, in contaminated feed for up to three days, and in straw bedding for up to four days.cite web | title = Pseudorabies: Introduction | work = The Merck Veterinary Manual | date = 2006 | url = http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/102200.htm | accessdate = 2007-03-31 ]

Diagnosis is made through an ELISA test. A vaccine is available for swine. [cite journal |author=Pensaert M, Labarque G, Favoreel H, Nauwynck H |title=Aujeszky's disease vaccination and differentiation of vaccinated from infected pigs |journal=Dev Biol (Basel) |volume=119 |issue= |pages=243–54 |year=2004 |pmid=15742635] There are eradication programs in the United States and the United Kingdom. In 2004 the commercial swine population of the United States was declared free of pseudorabies, but the disease remained in feral pig populations. [cite web | last = Amass | first = S.F. | title = Exotic Diseases: Are you Prepared? Are you Ready? | work = Proceedings of the North American Veterinary Conference | date = 2006 | url = http://www.ivis.org/proceedings/navc/2006/LA/119.asp | accessdate = 2007-03-31 ]

ymptoms

Swine are usually asymptomatic, but PRV can cause abortion, high mortality in piglets, and coughing, sneezing, fever, constipation, depression, seizures, ataxia, circling, and excess salivation in piglets and mature pigs. Mortality in piglets less than one month of age is close to 100 percent, but it is less than 10 percent in pigs between one and six months of age.cite web|author=Carter, G.R.; Flores, E.F.; Wise, D.J.|year=2006|title=Herpesviridae|work=A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology| url=http://www.ivis.org/advances/Carter/Part2Chap11/chapter.asp?LA=1|accessdate=2006-06-04] In cattle, symptoms include intense itching followed by neurological signs and death. In dogs, symptoms include intense itching, jaw and pharyngeal paralysis, howling, and death. In cats, the disease is so rapidly fatal that there are usually no symptoms. Any infected secondary host generally only lives two to three days.

pecies

Although swine (both domestic and feral) are the reservoir for this virus, it can affect other species although not commonly. Pseudorabies has been reported in brown bears and a black bear, a Florida panther, raccoons, coyotes and deer. In most of these, contact with pigs or pig products was either known or suspected. Outbreaks in farm fur species in Europe (mink and foxes) have been associated with feeding infected pig products. Many other species can be experimentally infected.

Humans are not potential hosts.

Applications in Neuroscience

PRV is a powerful tool used in neurobiology that can be employed to analyze neural circuits in the central nervous system (CNS). The Bartha strain of PRV is an attenuated form developed in 1961, and is employed as a retrograde transneuronal tracer. [Bartha A. (1961). Experimental reduction of virulence of Aujesky's disease virus. "Magny Allatorvosok Lapja" 16:42-45.] PRV-Bartha is transported to a neuronal cell body via its axon where it is replicated and dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and the dendritic tree. PRV-Bartha is able to cross synaptic gaps into the axons of "only" synaptically connected neurons, thereby propagating the virus in the retrograde fashion. Using temporal studies and/or genetically engineered strains of PRV-Bartha, second, third, and higher order neurons may be identified in the neural network of interest.

ee also

*Animal viruses
*Virology

References

External links

* [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=16148307 Overview of the virus and its applications in neuroscience]
* [http://www.horizonpress.com/gateway/animal-viruses.html Animal viruses]


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  • pseudorabies — pseu·do·rabies …   English syllables

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