botany, "monotypic" means that a taxonhas only one species: " Ginkgo" is a monotypic genus, while " Ginkgoaceae" is a monotypic family. The phrase is not accurate in cases where a speciesincludes more than a single type; some speciesmay include several subspecies(or other infraspecific taxa) each of which will have a type. A more accurate term in those cases is unispecific.:An example is the family Cephalotaceae, with only one species: "Cephalotus follicularis", the Albany Pitcher Plant.
zoology"monotypic" refers to a taxonthat contains only one immediately subordinate taxon. [Mayr & Ashlock (1991)] For example, a monotypic genushas only one species. Conversely, one can say that the contained taxonis monotypic within the larger taxon; a genusmonotypic within a family.:An example is the genus" Tarsius" which is monotypic within the family Tarsiidae, which is itself monotypic in the Tarsiiformes. An example of a monotypic speciesis the Hyacinth Macaw("Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus"), in which no subspeciescan be distinguished. The Bearded Reedling("Panurus biarmicus") has numerous subspecies across its range, but belongs to the genus "Panurus" (monotypic as to species), which current knowledge considers monotypic within the family Panuridae.
In the view of
evolutionary biology, taxonomy is a means to represent phylogeneticknowledge. Thus, it is usually avoided to establish monotypic taxa if this does not seem warranted e.g. by phylogenetic evidence such as fossils or inference from cladisticanalyses [E.g. Parham & Feldman (2002)] .
Race (classification of human beings)(a more detailed definition of monotypic in the context of humans, " Homo sapiens")
* (1991): "Principles of Systematic Zoology" (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-041144-1
* (2002): Generic revisions of emydine turtles. "Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter 6: 28–30. [http://cc.usu.edu/~crfeldman/Parham_Feldman_02.pdf PDF fulltext]
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