List of political parties in Egypt

List of political parties in Egypt

By its constitution, Egypt has a multi-party system, however in practice the National Democratic Party is the long-time ruling party and is dominant in the Egyptian political arena. Opposition parties are allowed, but are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power.

Law 40 of 1977 regulates the formation of political parties in Egypt. This law prohibits the formation of religious-based political parties, although there are growing political pressure groups such as Kefaya movement and the Muslim Brotherhood, who are seeking more balance in political power.


Emergence of political parties in Egypt in the 19th century was a reflection of social, economic and cultural interactions as well as certain historical, national and political circumstances, leading to the creation and development of modern institutions of government administration and society, such as the parliament, cabinets, political parties, syndicates, etc. This emergence has been gradual and has gone through successive stages. Political parties have firstly been formed as secret societies that were followed by formation of political groups.

The National Party, not to be confused with the current National Democratic Party (NDP), was the first party, formed in 1907 by Mostafa Kamel. In less than ten years, there was a great variety in these parties; in their nature, formation, organization, power, their popular base and platforms. There were national parties, groups dominated by the royal palace, others formed by the occupation authority as well as ideological parties expressing certain ideologies.

In 1907 - 1920, the already-formed political parties in Egypt were a starting signal for the dissemination of further parties; however, they were restricted due to the British occupation and Egyptian subordination to the Ottoman Empire. The February 1922 Declaration of Egypt's independence and the issuance of the 1923 Constitution have led to establishing a royal constitutional rule based on party pluralism and principles of liberal democracy.

During 1923 - 1952, Egypt witnessed a remarkable experience rich in political and democratic practices, however, such an experience was marked with many defects such as the British occupation, foreign intervention in Egypt's affairs and the royal palace's interference in political life. With the outbreak of the July 1952 Revolution, the Egyptian regime worked to liquidate the opposition. In January 1953, an enactment was adopted on disbanding the political parties and adoption of the one-party rule. The enactment of the parties' law in 1977 demonstrated Egypt's political regime officially turned into the era of party pluralism.

Party law review

Talk of political reform has never before come naturally to the NDP, a party which has often been accused of rigging elections to secure its overwhelming parliamentary majorities. The NDP now says it wants to remove the constraints hampering the political activities of other parties in the country.

"There is thinking about reviewing the law on political parties to give more freedom for new parties to be established and more freedom of action to those which already exist," said Mohamed Kamal a member of the Policy Secretariat.

So far the scope of the proposed reforms has not been made clear. The party also says it wants to improve the relationship between citizens and the police - an important issue in a country accused by human rights groups of the systematic use of torture in police stations.

Officially Recognized Parties

Political parties in Egypt also lists political parties in that country.

Major Parties

*National Democratic Party ('Al'Hizb Al Watani Al Democrati')
*New Wafd Party ("Hizb al-Wafd-al-Gadid")
*Progressive National Unionist Party ("Hizb al Tagammo' al Watani al Taqadommi al Wahdwawi') - Leftist party
*Arab Democratic Nasserist Party or Nasserist Party
*Liberal Party ("Hizb al-Ahrar")
*Tomorrow Party ("Hizb al-Ghad")

Minor Parties

*Democratic Front Party ("Hizb al-Gabha al-Democrati")
*The Democratic Unionist Party ("Hizb al-Itahadi al-Democrati")
*Umma Party ("Hizb al-Umma")
*National Conciliation Party ("Hizb al-Wifak")
*Constitutional Party ("al-Hizb al-distouri")
*Egyptian Arab Socialist Party ("Hizb Misr al-arabi al-ishtaraki")
*Democratic Peace Party
*Egyptian Greens
*Solidarity Party ("Hizb Al Takaful ")
*Egypt 2000 Party
*Democratic Generation (El-Geel) Party
*Misr El-Fatah (Young Egypt) Party
*The Social Justice Party
*Egypt Youth Party
*The People's Democratic Party (PDP) - Currently frozen.
*The Socialist Labour Party (Labour Party) - Suspended
*Dignity Party ("Hizb al-Karama") - a Nasserist offshoot led by journalist and MP Hamdeen Sabahi [] . Isn't granted full-license yet.

Awaiting license

*Liberal Egyptian Party ("el Hizb el Masri el Liberali"), formerly "Mother Egypt Party" ("Hizb Masr el-Omm") - a secular, Egyptian nationalist party.
*Dignity Party ("Hizb al-Karama") - a Nasserist offshoot led by journalist and MP Hamdeen Sabahi.
*Center Party ("Hizb Al-Wasat")- a Muslim Brotherhood offshoot with moderate tendencies, led by Abul-Ela Madi.

Other Political Groups

*Society of the Muslim Brotherhood ("Jama'at al-ikhwan al-muslimin")
*Communist Party of Egypt ("al-hezb al-sheo'ey al-masry")
*Kefaya Movement

ee also

*Index of political parties to browse parties by name
*List of political parties to browse parties by country
*List of political parties by ideology to browse parties by name
*Membership of internationals to browse parties by membership of internationals
*Liberalism in Egypt

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