- Yale Romanization
The Yale romanizations are four systems created during
World War IIfor use by United Statesmilitary personnel. They romanized the four East Asian languages of Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, and Japanese. The four Romanizations, however, are unrelated in the sense that the same letter from one Romanization may not represent the same sound in another.
Mandarin Yale was developed to prepare American soldiers to communicate with their Chinese allies on the battlefield. Rather than try to teach recruits to interpret the standard romanization of the time, the
Wade-Gilessystem, a new system was invented that utilized the decoding skills that recruits would already know from having learned to read English, i.e. it used English spelling conventions to represent Chinese sounds. It avoided the main problems that the Wade-Giles system presented to the uninitiated student or news announcer trying to get somebody's name right in a public forum, because it did not use the "rough breathing (aspiration) mark" (which looks like an apostrophe) to distinguish between sounds like "jee" and "chee". In Wade-Giles the first of those would be written "chi" and the second would be written "ch'i". In the Yale romanization they were written "ji" and "chi". The Yale system also avoids the difficulties faced by the beginner trying to read pinyinromanization because it uses certain Roman letters and combinations of letters in such a way that they no longer carry their expected values. For instance, "q" in pinyin is pronounced something like the "ch" in "chicken" and is written as "ch" in Yale Romanization. "Xi" in pinyin is pronounced something like the "sh" in "sheep", but in Yale it is written as "syi". "Zhi" in pinyin sounds something like the "ger" in "gerbil", and is written as "jr" in Yale romanization. For example: in Wade-Giles, "knowledge" (知识) is "chih-shih"; in pinyin, "zhishi"; but in Yale romanization it is written "jr-shr"—only the latter will elicit a near-correct pronunciation from an unprepared English speaker.
The tone markings from Yale romanization were adopted for pinyin.Fact|date=February 2007
Unlike the Mandarin Yale romanization, Cantonese Yale is still widely used in books and dictionaries for
Standard Cantonese, especially for foreign learners. Developed by Parker Po-fei Huangand Gerald P. Kok, it shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyinin that unvoiced, unaspirated consonantsare represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, IPA| [p] is represented as "b" in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, IPA| [pʰ] is represented as "p". Because of this and other factors, Yale romanization is usually held to be easy for American Englishspeakers to pronounce without much training. In Hong Kong, more people use Standard Cantonese Pinyinand Jyutping, as these systems are believed to be more localized to Hong Kong people Fact|date=October 2007.
* Tones can also be written using the tone number instead of the tone mark and "h".
* In modern
Standard Cantonese, the high-flat and high-falling tones are indistinguishable and, therefore, are represented with the same tone number.
* Three entering tone: entering high-flat, entering mid-flat, entering low-flat have the same
tone contours with high-flat, mid-flat, low-flat, but it have difference in coda which affect its short falling cadence only. So we use the same representation between three entering tones and flat tones.
The letter "q" indicates "reinforcement" which is not shown in hangul spelling:
* "halq il" /"hallil"/
* "halq kes" /"halkket"/
* "kulqca" /"kulcca"/
In cases of letter combinations that would otherwise be ambiguous, a period indicates the orthographic syllable boundary. It is also used for other purposes such as to indicate sound change:
* "nulk.un" “old”
* "kath.i" /"kachi"/ “together”; “like”, “as” etc.
A macron over a vowel letter indicate that in old or dialectal language, this vowel is pronounced long:
* "māl" “word(s)”
* "mal" “horse(s)”Note: Vowel length (or pitch, depending on the dialect) as a distinctive feature seems to have disappeared at least among younger speakers of the
Seoul dialectsometime in the late 20th century.
A superscript letter indicates consonants that have disappeared from a word's South Korean orthography and standard pronunciation. For example, the South Korean orthographic syllable _ko. 영 (RR "yeong") is romanized as follows:
* "yeng" where no initial consonant has been dropped.
Example: _ko. 영어 (英語) "yenge"
* "lyeng" where an initial l ( _ko. ㄹ) has been dropped or changed to n ( _ko. ㄴ) in the South Korean standard language.
Examples: _ko. 영 [
=령] 도 (領導) "lyengto"; _ko. 노 [ =로] 무현 (盧武鉉) "lNo Muhyen "
* "nyeng" where an initial n ( _ko. ㄴ) has been dropped in the South Korean standard language.
Example: _ko. 영 [
=녕] 변 (寧邊) "nYengpyen"
The indication of vowel length or pitch and disappeared consonants often make it easier to predict how a word is pronounced in Korean dialects when given its Yale romanization compared to its South Korean hangul spelling.
There are separate rules for Middle Korean. For example, "o" means _ko. ㅗ (RR "o") in a romanization of the current language, but _ko. ㆍ ("arae a") for Middle Korean, where _ko. ㅗ is transcribed as "wo". Martin 1992 uses italics for romanizations of Middle Korean as well as other texts predating the 1933 abandonment of "arae a", whereas current language is shown in boldface.
* [http://www.pinyin.info/romanization/yale/basic.html Comparison chart of Yale Romanization for Mandarin with Hanyu Pinyin and Zhuyin Fuhao]
* [http://www2s.biglobe.ne.jp/~windharp/ctroma.htm Comparison chart of Romanization for Cantonese with Yale, S. Lau, Guangdong, Toho and LSHK (uses Shift JIS encoding)]
* [http://www.mdbg.net/chindict/chindict.php?page=chardict MDBG free online Chinese-English dictionary (supports Cantonese Yale romanization)]
* [http://cpime.hk/ Cantonese Phonetic IME (with Yale Romanization)]
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