- Electrical treeing
Within the field of
electrical engineering, treeing is an electrical pre-breakdown phenomenon. It is a damaging process due to partial discharges and progresses through the stressed dielectric insulation, whose path resembles the form of a tree.
Occurrence and causes
Electrical treeing first occurs and propagates when a dry dielectric material is subjected to high and divergent
electrical fieldstress over a long period of time. Electrical treeing is observed to originate at points where impurities, gasvoids, mechanical defects, or conducting projections cause excessive electrical fieldstress within small regions of the dielectric. This can ionize gases within voids inside the bulk dielectric, creating small electrical discharges between the walls of the void. An impurity or defect may even result in the partial breakdown of the solid dielectric itself. Ultraviolet lightand ozonefrom these partial discharges (PD) then react with the nearby dielectric, decomposing and further degrading its insulating capability. Gases are often liberated as the dielectric degrades, creating new voids and cracks. These defects further weaken the dielectric strength of the material, enhance the electrical stress, and accelerate the PD process.
Over time, a partially conductive, branching 3D tree-like figure is formed within the dielectric. The tree can grow to the point that it eventually causes complete electrical failure of the dielectric. This has been a long-term failure mechanism for buried
polymer-insulated high voltage power cables. In a similar fashion, 2D trees can occur along the surface of a highly stressed dielectric, or across a dielectric surface that has been contaminated by dust or mineral salts. Over time, these partially conductive trails can grow until they cause complete failure of the dielectric. Electrical tracking, sometimes called "dry banding", is a typical failure mechanism for electrical power insulators that are subjected to salt spray contamination along coastlines. The branching 2D and 3D patterns are sometimes called Lichtenberg figures.
Following are some examples of 2D and 3D electrical trees:
Electrical treeing or "Lichtenberg figures" also occur in High-voltage equipment just before breakdown. Following these Lichtenberg figures in the insulation during postmortem investigation of the broken down insulation can be most useful in finding the cause of breakdown. An experienced High-voltage engineer can see from the direction and the type of trees and their branches where the primary cause of the breakdown was situated and possibly find the cause. Broken-down transformers, High-voltage cables, bushings and other equipment can usefully be investigated in this way; the insulation is unrolled (in the case of paper insulation) or sliced in thin slices (in the case of solid insulations), the results are sketched and photographed and form a useful archive of the breakdown process.
Types of Electrical Trees
The electrical trees can be further categorized depending on the different tree patterns. They are dendrites, branch type, bush type, spikes, bush type, spikes, strings, bow-ties and vented trees. The two most commonly found tree types are bow-tie trees and vented trees [cite book |last= William |first= A. Thue |title=Electrical Insulation in Power Systems |publisher= CRC |year=1997 |pages=pp. 255-256 |id=ISBN 0824701062] . ;Bow-tie trees: Bow-tie trees are trees which start to grow from within the dielectric insulation and grow symmetrically outwards from the electrodes. As the trees start within the insulation, they have no free supply of air which will enable continuous support of partial discharges. Thus, these trees have discontinuous growth which is why the vented trees usually do not grow long enough to fully bridge the entire insulation between the electrodes, therefore causing failure in the insulation. ;Vented trees: Vented trees are trees which initiate at an electrode insulation interface and grow towards the opposite electrode. Having access to free air is a very important factor for the growth of the vented trees. These trees are able to grow continuously until they are long enough to bridge the electrodes, therefore causing failure in the insulation.
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