Electrical treeing

Electrical treeing

Within the field of electrical engineering, treeing is an electrical pre-breakdown phenomenon. It is a damaging process due to partial discharges and progresses through the stressed dielectric insulation, whose path resembles the form of a tree.

Occurrence and causes

Electrical treeing first occurs and propagates when a dry dielectric material is subjected to high and divergent electrical field stress over a long period of time. Electrical treeing is observed to originate at points where impurities, gas voids, mechanical defects, or conducting projections cause excessive electrical field stress within small regions of the dielectric. This can ionize gases within voids inside the bulk dielectric, creating small electrical discharges between the walls of the void. An impurity or defect may even result in the partial breakdown of the solid dielectric itself. Ultraviolet light and ozone from these partial discharges (PD) then react with the nearby dielectric, decomposing and further degrading its insulating capability. Gases are often liberated as the dielectric degrades, creating new voids and cracks. These defects further weaken the dielectric strength of the material, enhance the electrical stress, and accelerate the PD process.

Over time, a partially conductive, branching 3D tree-like figure is formed within the dielectric. The tree can grow to the point that it eventually causes complete electrical failure of the dielectric. This has been a long-term failure mechanism for buried polymer-insulated high voltage power cables. In a similar fashion, 2D trees can occur along the surface of a highly stressed dielectric, or across a dielectric surface that has been contaminated by dust or mineral salts. Over time, these partially conductive trails can grow until they cause complete failure of the dielectric. Electrical tracking, sometimes called "dry banding", is a typical failure mechanism for electrical power insulators that are subjected to salt spray contamination along coastlines. The branching 2D and 3D patterns are sometimes called Lichtenberg figures.

Following are some examples of 2D and 3D electrical trees:

Technical Occurrence

Electrical treeing or "Lichtenberg figures" also occur in High-voltage equipment just before breakdown. Following these Lichtenberg figures in the insulation during postmortem investigation of the broken down insulation can be most useful in finding the cause of breakdown. An experienced High-voltage engineer can see from the direction and the type of trees and their branches where the primary cause of the breakdown was situated and possibly find the cause. Broken-down transformers, High-voltage cables, bushings and other equipment can usefully be investigated in this way; the insulation is unrolled (in the case of paper insulation) or sliced in thin slices (in the case of solid insulations), the results are sketched and photographed and form a useful archive of the breakdown process.

Types of Electrical Trees

The electrical trees can be further categorized depending on the different tree patterns. They are dendrites, branch type, bush type, spikes, bush type, spikes, strings, bow-ties and vented trees. The two most commonly found tree types are bow-tie trees and vented trees [cite book |last= William |first= A. Thue |title=Electrical Insulation in Power Systems |publisher= CRC |year=1997 |pages=pp. 255-256 |id=ISBN 0824701062] . ;Bow-tie trees: Bow-tie trees are trees which start to grow from within the dielectric insulation and grow symmetrically outwards from the electrodes. As the trees start within the insulation, they have no free supply of air which will enable continuous support of partial discharges. Thus, these trees have discontinuous growth which is why the vented trees usually do not grow long enough to fully bridge the entire insulation between the electrodes, therefore causing failure in the insulation. ;Vented trees: Vented trees are trees which initiate at an electrode insulation interface and grow towards the opposite electrode. Having access to free air is a very important factor for the growth of the vented trees. These trees are able to grow continuously until they are long enough to bridge the electrodes, therefore causing failure in the insulation.

See also

*Partial discharge
*Lichtenberg Figures.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Electrical breakdown — in an electric discharge showing the ribbon like plasma filaments from a Tesla coil. The term electrical breakdown or electric breakdown has several similar but distinctly different meanings. For example, the term can apply to the failure of an… …   Wikipedia

  • Treeing — See Electrical treeing for branching channels within electrical engineering Treeing is a method of hunting where dogs are used to force animals that naturally climb up into trees, where they can be shot by hunters. Particularly used with… …   Wikipedia

  • Partial discharge — In electrical engineering, a partial discharge (PD) is a localised dielectric breakdown of a small portion of a solid or liquid electrical insulation system under high voltage stress. While a corona discharge is usually revealed by a relatively… …   Wikipedia

  • Lichtenberg figure — Lichtenberg figures (Lichtenberg Figuren, or Lichtenberg Dust Figures ) are branching electric discharges that sometimes appear on the surface or the interior of insulating materials. They are named after the German physicist Georg Christoph… …   Wikipedia

  • Tree (disambiguation) — A tree is a woody plant.Tree may also refer to: *Tree structure, a way of representing the hierarchical nature of a structure in a graphical form *Tree (data structure), a widely used computer data structure that emulates a tree structure with a… …   Wikipedia

  • Lightning — This article is about the atmospheric electrical phenomenon. For other uses, see Lightning (disambiguation). See also: Lightning strike Lightning striking Atlanta, United States Lightning is an atmospheric electrostatic discharge (spar …   Wikipedia

  • Tracking — can refer to: Tracking (education), separating children into different classes according to their academic ability Tracking, in computer graphics, a vital part of match moving Tracking, in portfolio management, matching or comparing with a stock… …   Wikipedia

  • Lead-acid battery — Batteries caption=A valve regulated lead acid battery EtoW=30 40 Wh/kg EtoS=60 75 Wh/L PtoW=180 W/kg|CtoDE=70% 92% EtoCP=7(sld ) 18(fld ) Wh/US$ [http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/8679/battery.html] SDR=3% 20%/month… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”