- Voskhod spacecraft
caption=Voskhod 2 spacecraft
status=Last 4 flights cancelled
Soviet space program
variants with their own articles=
Vostok spacecraft, FotonThe Voskhod (Восход, Voschod, or Wosschod, translated as "Rising") was a spacecraftbuilt by the Soviet Union's space program for human spaceflight(see Voskhod programme). It was a development of and a follow-on to the Vostok spacecraft.
The craft consisted of a spherical descent module (diameter 2.3 meters), which housed the cosmonauts, and instruments, and a conical instrument module (mass 2.27 tonnes, 2.25 m long, 2.43 m wide), which contained propellant and the engine system.
The Voskhod spacecraft is basically a Vostok spacecraft that has had a backup, solid fuel retro rocket, added to the top of the descent module. The ejection seat was removed and two or three crew couches were added to the interior at a 90 degree angle to that of the Vostok crew position. In the case of Voskhod 2, an inflatable exterior airlock was also added to the descent module opposite the entry hatch. After use, the airlock was jettisoned. There was no provision for crew escape in the event of a launch or landing emergency. A solid fuel
braking rocketwas also added to the parachute lines to provide for a softer landing at touchdown. This was necessary because, unlike the Vostok, the crew lands with the Voskhod descent module.
In order to create more space inside the descent module, the cosmonaut's ejection seat was removed, meaning that the Voskhod crews would return to Earth inside their spacecraft, unlike the Vostok cosmonauts who ejected and parachuted down separately. The lack of space also meant that the Voskhod 1 crew did not wear
space suits. Both crew members wore spacesuits on the Voskhod 2 mission, as it involved an EVA and using an airlock. The second crew member wore a spacesuit as a precaution against the possibility of accidental descent module depressurization. Because the crew was required to land with the descent module, a new landing system to slow the craft was developed. This added a small solid-fuel rocket to the parachutes lines. It fired as the descent module neared touchdown, providing a softer landing than did Vostok. A backup solid-fuel retrorocket was added to the top of the descent module. The original Vostok spacecraft only had one liquid fuel retrorocket and no provision for backup. The Vostok did carry enough onboard supplies for a 10-day flight. This would allow for natural orbit decay and reentry if the retrorocket failed. Finally, the Voskhod 2 spacecraft carried a large inflatable airlock that allowed cosmonaut Aleksei Leonovto exit and re-enter the craft.
The airlock carried on Voskhod 2 weighed 250 kg, was 700 mm in diameter, 770 mm high when collapsed for launch. When extended in orbit, the airlock was 2.5 m long. It had an internal diameter of 1.0 m and an external diameter of 1.2 m.
It was carried into orbit by the
Voskhod rocket, also developed from the earlier Vostok rocketand ultimately derived from the R-7 ICBM.
Vostok 3KV (1964)
Also known as Voskhod. Adaptation of the Vostok spacecraft for three cosmonauts. This version flew twice, on
6 October 1964unmanned (as Cosmos 47) and on 12 October 1964manned as Voskhod 1.
*Crew size: 3 (without spacesuits)
*Endurance: 14.0 days
*Overall length: 5.0 m
*Maximum diameter: 2.4 m
*Total mass: 5,682 kg
*Propellant mass: 362 kg
*RCS total impulse: not available
*Primary engine thrust: 15.83 kN
*Main engine propellants: nitrous oxide/amine
*Total spacecraft delta v: 215 m/s
*Power: batteries; 24.0 kW total
*Crew size: 3
*Diameter: 2.3 m (sphere)
*Total mass: 2,900 kg
*Attitude control: none
*Environment: oxygen + nitrogen at 1 atm
*Controls: as Vostok 3KA
*Landing system: Sphere made ballistic reentry, with shield side seeking correct orientation by virtue of the center of gravity being aft of the center of the sphere.
*Parachutes: single with suspended retrorocket package for soft landing. Crew stayed within the capsule.
*Length: 2.3 m
*Maximum diameter: 2.4 m
*Total mass: 2,300 kg
*Propellant mass: 275 kg
*Reaction control system
**thrusters: not available
**propellant: cold gas (nitrogen)
**specific impulse: not available
**total impulse: not available
**thrust: 15.83 kN
**propellant: nitrous oxide/amine
**specific impulse: 266 s
**delta v: 155 m/s
*Power: batteries; 24.0 kW total, 0.20 kW average
Auxiliary retrorocket module
Length: 0.6 mMaximum diameter: 0.3 mTotal mass: 143 kgPropellant mass: 87 kgThrust: 117.7 kNPropellant: solidSpecific impulse: 224 sDelta v: 60 m/s
Voskod 3KD (1965)
This version flew twice, on
22 February 1965unmanned (as Cosmos 57) and on 18 March 1965manned as the Voskhod 2spacecraft.
Reentry Module: Voskhod SA. Also known as: Spuskaemiy apparat - 'Sharik' (sphere).
*Crew Size: 2
*Length: 2.3 m
*Diameter: 2.3 m
*Mass: 2,900 kg
*Heat Shield Mass: 837 kg
*Recovery equipment: 151 kg
*Parachute deploys at 2.5 km altitude
*Crew lands in spacecraft. Touchdown rocket softens landing.
*Ballistic reentry acceleration: 8 "g" (78 m/s²)
Equipment Module: Voskhod PA. Also known as: Priborniy otsek.
*Length: 2.25 m
*Diameter: 2.43 m
*Mass: 2,300 kg
*Equipment in pressurized compartment
*RCS Propellants: Cold gas (nitrogen)
*RCS Propellants: 20 kg
*Main Engine (TDU): 397 kg
*Main Engine Thrust: 15.83 kN
*Main Engine Propellants: Nitrous oxide/amine
*Main Engine Propellant Mass: 275 kg
*Main Engine Isp: 266 s (2.61 kN·s/kg)
*Main Engine Burn Time: 1 minute (typical retro burn = 42 seconds)
*Spacecraft delta v: 155 m/s
*Electrical System: Batteries
*Electric System: 0.20 average kW
*Electric System: 24.0 kW h
Auxiliary Retrorocket Module
Auxiliary Retrorocket Module: Voskhod KDU. Also known as: Engine unit
*Length: 0.60 m
*Diameter: 0.25 m
*Mass: 143 kg
*Engine Thrust: 118 kN
*Engine Propellants: Solid
*Propellant Mass: 87 kg
*Engine Isp: 224 s (2.20 kN·s/kg)
*Spacecraft delta v: 60 m/s
*Total Mass:5,682 kg
*Total Length: 5.0 m
*Endurance: Supplies for 14 days in orbit
*Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57
*Typical orbit: 163 km x 591 km, 64.8 inclinaton
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