June 19— Battle of Kalvskinnet (outside Nidaros, Norway): Earl Erling Skakkeis killed, and the battle changes the tide of the civil wars.
Third Council of the Laterancondemns Waldensiansand Catharsas heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first " ghettos" for Jews. It also rules that the Popemust receive 2/3 of the cardinals' votes to be elected.
* Afonso I is recognized as the true
King of Portugalby Pope Alexander III, bringing Portugalthe protection of the Catholic Church against the Castilian monarchy.
* Philip II is crowned
King of France.
* The city of
Aberdeenis chartered by William the Lion.
Westminster Schoolis founded by the monks of Westminster Abbey(by papal command).
Drigung Kagyuschool of Kagyu Buddhismis founded.
* The Maya city of
Chichen Itzais sacked and burned by Hunac Ceel, the Mayapan king.
John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut(approximate date; d. 1236)
* Mikhail of Kiev (approximate date; d.
Hermann von Salza, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights(approximate date; d. 1239)
Shimazu Tadahisa, warlord of the Shimazu clanof Japan (d. 1227)
* William IV Talvas,
Count of Ponthieu(d. 1221)
Yaqut al-Hamawi, Arab geographer (d. 1229)
September 17— Hildegard of Bingen, German abbess, mystic writer, and composer (b. 1098)
Taira no Shigemori, Japanese rebel (b. 1138)
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