adduction, one of the anatomical terms of motion."An adduct (from the Latin "adductus", "drawn toward") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components, with formation of two chemical bonds and a net reduction in bond multiplicity in at least one of the reactants. The resultant is considered a distinct molecular species. Examples include the adduct between hydrogen peroxideand sodium carbonateto give sodium percarbonate, and the addition of sodium bisulfiteto an aldehydeto give a sulfonate.
Adducts often form between
Lewis acids and Lewis bases. A good example would be the formation of adducts between the Lewis acid boraneand the oxygen atom in the Lewis bases, tetrahydrofuran(THF) or diethyl ether: BH3•THF, BH3•OEt2. Compounds or mixtures that cannot form an adduct because of steric hindranceare called frustrated Lewis pairs.
Adducts are not necessarily molecular in nature. A good example from
solid-state chemistryare the adducts of ethylene or carbon monoxide of CuAlCl4. The latter is a solid with an extended lattice structure. Upon formation of the adduct a new extended phase is formed in which the gas molecules are incorporated (inserted) as ligands of the copper atoms within the structure. This reaction can also be considered a reaction between a base and a Lewis acid with the copper atom in the electron-receiving and the pi-electrons of the gas molecule in the donating role. [cite journal | author = Capracotta, Michael D.; Sullivan, Roger M.; Martin, James D. | title = Sorptive Reconstruction of CuMCl4 (M = Al and Ga) upon Small-Molecule Binding and the Competitive Binding of CO and Ethylene | journal = J. Am. Chem. Soc.| year = 2006 | volume = 128 | issue = 41 | pages = 13463–13473 | doi = 10.1021/ja063172q]
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