color = lightgrey
name = "Acetobacter"
regnum = Bacteria|
classis = Alpha Proteobacteria
genus = "Acetobacter"
genus_authority = Beijerinck 1898
type_species = Acetobacter aceti
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = "A. aceti"
"Acetobacter" is a genus of
acetic acid bacteriacharacterized by the ability to convert alcohol ( ethanol) to acetic acidin the presence of air. There are several species within this genus, and there are other bacteria capable of forming acetic acid under various conditions; but all of the "Acetobacter" are known by this characteristic ability.
"Acetobacter" are of particular importance commercially, because:
*they are used in the production of
vinegar(intentionally converting the ethanol in the wineto acetic acid);
*they can destroy wine which it infects by producing excessive amounts of acetic acid or
ethyl acetate, both of which can render the wine unpalatable;
*they are used to intentionally acidify
beerduring long maturation periods in the production of traditional Flemish Sour Ales;
* "A". "xylinus" is the main source of
The growth of "Acetobacter" in wine can be suppressed through effective sanitation, by complete exclusion of air from
winein storage, and by the use of moderate amounts of sulfur dioxidein the wine as a preservative.
"Acetobacter" can be easily distinguished in the laboratory by their growth of colonies on a medium containing about 7% ethanol, and enough
calcium carbonateto render the medium partially opaque. When "Acetobacter" colonies form enough acetic acid from the ethanol, the calcium carbonate around the colonies dissolves, forming a very distinct clear zone.
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