- Dzongkha language
speakers=First language: 130,000 Second language ~470,000
Dzongkha ( _dz. རྫོང་ཁ Wylie: "rdzong-kha", Jong-kă) is the national language of
Bhutan. The word "dzongkha" means the language ("kha", "jong") spoken in the "dzong" ("jong"), dzongbeing the fortress-like monasteries established throughout Bhutan by Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyelin the 17th century.
Dzongkha bears a linguistic relationship to modern Tibetan. Although the spoken varieties are largely mutually unintelligible, they share a common literary language, as well as a liturgical (clerical) Tibetan language ("
Chöke" ) which has been used for centuries by Buddhist monks. Chöke was used as the language of education until the early 1960s when it was replaced by Dzongkha in public schools.
Dzongkha and its dialects are the native tongue of eight western districts of Bhutan (viz. Phodrang,
Punakha, Thimphu, Gasa, Paro, Ha, Dhakana, and Chukha). There are also some speakers found near the Indian town of Kalimpong, once part of Bhutan but now in West Bengal. Dzongkha study is mandatory in all schools in Bhutan, and the language is the " lingua franca" in the districts to the south and east where it is not the mother tongue.
Linguistically, Dzongkha is a
South Bodishlanguage belonging to the proposed Tibeto-Burmanbranch of the Sino-Tibetan group. It is closely related to Sikkimese (bo|w= 'Bras-ljongs-skad), the national language of the erstwhile kingdom of Sikkim; and to some other Bhutanese languages such as Cho-cha-na-ca "(khyod ca nga ca kha)", Brokpa "(me rag sag steng 'brog skad)", Brokkat "(dur gyi 'brog skad), and Laka (la ka)". Modern Tibetan is a Central Bodish language and thus belongs to a different sub-branch.
Dzongkha is usually written in Bhutanese forms of the
Tibetan scriptknown as Joyi "(mgyogs yig)" and Joshum "(mgyogs tshugs ma)". Dzongkha books are typically printed using Ucan fonts like those to print the Tibetan abugida.
Dzongkha is rarely heard outside Bhutan and environs. However, the 2003 Bhutanese film, "
Travellers and Magicians" is entirely in Dzongkha.
October 2005, an internal Microsoftproposal blocked the term "Dzongkha" from all company software and promotional material, substituting the term "Tibetan - Bhutan" instead. This was done at the request of the government of the People's Republic of China, who insisted the name "Dzongkha" implied an affiliation with the Dalai Lama, and hence, with Tibetan independentism. [http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/002619.html Microsoft Outlaws Dzongkha] ] [ [http://www.savetibet.org/news/newsitem.php?id=836 Microsoft Sensitive to Chinese Pressure on Bhutan Tibet Link] ] The Bhutanese, who have never been under the rule of the Dalai Lamas, even if they revere the 14th Dalai Lama, [ [http://www.kuenselonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2434 30,000 Bhutanese on pilgrimage in India] ] were dismayed by the decision. [ [http://www.kuenselonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=8503 Old story, new lessons] ] Linguists have pointed out that the word "Dzongkha" has no particular association with the Dalai Lama.
* (CNWS publications Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region, 1566-1970 ; vol. 1) - A language textbook with three audio compact disks.
* for a list of proverbs given in both
romanizedDzongkha and English.
* [http://www.education.gov.bt/Departments/DDA/DDA.htm Dzongkha Development Authority] Thimphu, Bhutan
* [http://iris.lib.virginia.edu/tibet/xml/show.php?xml=/collections/langling/languages/index.xml&l=9 Languages on the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas] - Nicolas Tournadre
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dzo Ethnologue entry on Dzongkha]
* [http://learndzongkha.mypodcast.com/ Podcast to learn conversational Dzongkha] - Shankar
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