- Japanese yen
] while the same amount of gold is worth about 4715 yen. [cite web | author=xe.com | date=
2006-09-07| url=http://www.xe.com/ucc/convert.cgi?Amount=0.04822612&From=XAU&To=JPY | title=Equivalent of 0.04822612 troy ounce of gold in yen | accessdate=2006-09-07] The Act also moved Japan onto the gold standard. (The sen and the rin were eventually taken out of circulation at the end of 1953. [nihongo|A law of the abolition of currencies in a small denomination and rounding off a fraction, July 15 1953 Law No.60| [http://www.shugiin.go.jp/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/01619530715060.htm 小額通貨の整理及び支払金の端数計算に関する法律] |Shōgakutsūka no seiri oyobi shiharaikin no hasūkeisan ni kansuru hōritsu)] )
Fixed value of the yen to the US dollar
The yen lost most of its value during and after
World War II. After a period of instability, in 1949, the value of the yen was fixed at ¥360 per US$1 through a United States plan, which was part of the Bretton Woods System, to stabilize prices in the Japanese economy. That exchange ratewas maintained until 1971, when the United States abandoned the gold standard, which had been a key element of the Bretton Woods System, and imposed a 10 percent surcharge on imports, setting in motion changes that eventually led to floating exchange rates in 1973.
By 1971 the yen had become undervalued. Japanese
exports were costing too little in international markets, and imports from abroad were costing the Japanese too much. This undervaluation was reflected in the current account balance, which had risen from the deficits of the early 1960s to a then-large surplus of U.S. $5.8 billion in 1971. The belief that the yen, and several other major currencies, were undervalued motivated the United States' actions in 1971.
Yen and major currencies float
Following the United States' measures to devalue the dollar in the summer of 1971, the Japanese government agreed to a new, fixed exchange rate as part of the
Smithsonian Agreement, signed at the end of the year. This agreement set the exchange rate at ¥308 per US$1. However, the new fixed rates of the Smithsonian Agreement were difficult to maintain in the face of supply and demand pressures in the foreign-exchange market. In early 1973, the rates were abandoned, and the major nations of the world allowed their currencies to float.
Japanese government intervention in the currency market
In the 1970s, Japanese government and business people were very concerned that a rise in the value of the yen would hurt export growth by making Japanese products less competitive and would damage the industrial base. The government therefore continued to intervene heavily in foreign-exchange marketing (buying or selling dollars), even after the 1973 decision to allow the yen to float.
Despite intervention, market pressures caused the yen to continue climbing in value, peaking temporarily at an average of ¥271 per US$1 in 1973 before the impact of the
1973 oil crisiswas felt. The increased costs of imported oil caused the yen to depreciate to a range of ¥290 to ¥300 between 1974 and 1976. The re-emergence of trade surpluses drove the yen back up to ¥211 in 1978. This currency strengthening was again reversed by the second oil shock in 1979, with the yen dropping to ¥227 by 1980.
Yen in the early 1980s
During the first half of the 1980s, the yen failed to rise in value even though current account surpluses returned and grew quickly. From ¥221 in 1981, the average value of the yen actually dropped to ¥239 in 1985. The rise in the current account surplus generated stronger demand for yen in foreign-exchange markets, but this trade-related demand for yen was offset by other factors. A wide differential in
interest rates, with United States interest rates much higher than those in Japan, and the continuing moves to deregulate the international flow of capital, led to a large net outflow of capital from Japan. This capital flow increased the supply of yen in foreign-exchange markets, as Japanese investors changed their yen for other currencies (mainly dollars) to invest overseas. This kept the yen weak relative to the dollar and fostered the rapid rise in the Japanese trade surplus that took place in the 1980s.
Effect of the Plaza Accord
In 1985 a dramatic change began. Finance officials from major nations signed an agreement (the
Plaza Accord) affirming that the dollar was overvalued (and, therefore, the yen undervalued). This agreement, and shifting supply and demand pressures in the markets, led to a rapid rise in the value of the yen. From its average of ¥239 per US$1 in 1985, the yen rose to a peak of ¥128 in 1988, virtually doubling its value relative to the dollar. After declining somewhat in 1989 and 1990, it reached a new high of ¥123 to US$1 in December 1992. In April 1995, the yen hit a peak of under 80 yen per dollar, temporarily making Japan's economy nearly the size of the US.
The yen declined during the
Japanese asset price bubbleand continued to do so afterwards, reaching a low of ¥134 to US$1 in February 2002. The Bank of Japan's policy of zero interest rates has discouraged yen investments, with the carry tradeof investors borrowing yen and investing in better-paying currencies (thus further pushing down the yen) estimated to be as large as $1 trillion. [ [http://economist.com/finance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8633485 What keeps bankers awake at night?] , "The Economist", Feb 1st 2007] In February 2007, " The Economist" estimated that the yen is 15% undervalued against the dollar and as much as 40% undervalued against the euro. [ [http://www.economist.com/finance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8679006 Japan's currency | Carry on living dangerously | Economist.com ] ] .
Coins were introduced in 1870. There were silver 5, 10, 20 and 50 sen and 1 yen, and gold 2, 5, 10 and 20 yen. Gold 1 yen were introduced in 1871, followed by copper 1 rin, ½, 1 and 2 sen in 1873.
Cupronickel5 sen coins were introduced in 1889. In 1897, the silver 1 yen coin was demonetized and the sizes of the gold coins were reduced by 50%, with 5, 10 and 20 yen coins issued. In 1920, cupro-nickel 10 sen coins were introduced.
Production of silver coins ceased in 1938, after which a variety of base metals were used to produce 1, 5 and 10 sen coins during the
Second World War. Clay 5 and 10 sen coins were produced in 1945 but not issued for circulation.
After the war, brass 50 sen, 1 and 5 yen were introduced between 1946 and 1948. In 1949, the current type of holed 5 yen was introduced, followed by bronze 10 yen (of the type still in circulation) in 1951.
Coins in denominations of less than 1 yen became invalid on December 31, 1953, following enforcement of the nihongo|Small Currency Disposition and Fractional Rounding in Payments Act|小額通貨の整理及び支払金の端数計算に関する法律|Shōgaku tsūka no seiri oyobi shiharaikin no hasūkeisan ni kan suru hōritsu.
In 1955, the current type of aluminium 1 yen was introduced, along with unholed, nickel 50 yen. In 1957, silver 100 yen pieces were introduced. These were replaced in 1967 by the current, cupro-nickel type, along with the holed 50 yen coin. In 1982, the first 500 yen coins were introduced. [cite web | author=Japan Mint | url=http://www.mint.go.jp/eng/data/page01-1_e.html | title=Number of Coin Production (calendar year) | accessdate=2006-09-07 | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20061110050643/http://www.mint.go.jp/eng/data/page01-1_e.html | archivedate = 2006-11-10]
The date is on the reverse of all coins, and, in most cases, the name 日本国, Nihonkoku (Japan) and the value in kanji is on the obverse, except for the 5-yen where Nihonkoku is on the reverse.
500 yen coins are among the highest valued coins to be used regularly in the world (with values in the neighbourhood of US$4.86, €3.12, and £2.46). The United States' largest-valued commonly-used coin (25¢) is worth around 26 yen; the
Eurozone's largest (€2) is worth ¥324, and the United Kingdom's largest (£2) is worth ¥407 (as of August 2008). The Swiss 5-franc coin is currently (as of August 2008) worth about ¥501, putting it just above the Japanese ¥500 coin. No doubt because of this high face value, the 500 yen has been a favourite target for counterfeiters. It was counterfeited to such an extent that in 2000 a new series of coins was issued with various security features. In spite of these changes, however, counterfeiting continues.
The 1 yen coin is made out of 100% aluminum.
On various occasions, commemorative coins are minted using gold and silver with various face values, up to 100,000 yen. [cite web | author=Japan Mint | url=http://www.mint.go.jp/eng/data/page02_e.html | title=Commemorative Coins issued up to now | accessdate=2006-09-07 | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20061109025354/http://www.mint.go.jp/eng/data/page02_e.html | archivedate = 2006-11-09] Even though they can be used, they are treated as collectibles.
Instead of displaying the
A.D.year of mintage like most nations' coins, yen coins instead display the year of the current emperor's reign. For example, a coin minted in 2006 would bear the date Heisei18 (the 18th year of Emperor Akihito's reign). [cite web | author=Japan Mint | url=http://www.mint.go.jp/eng/kids/circulating_c.html | title=Designs of circulating coins | accessdate=2007-12-26]
The issuance of the yen banknotes began in 1872, two years after the currency was introduced. Throughout its history, the denominations have ranged from 10 sen to 10000 yen.
Before and during
World War II, various bodies issued banknotes in yen, such as the Ministry of Finance and the Imperial Japanese National Bank. The Allied forces also issued some notes shortly after the war. Since then, the Bank of Japanhas been the exclusive note issuing authority. The bank has issued five series after World War II. Series E, the current series, consists of ¥1000, ¥2000, ¥5000, and ¥10,000.
Determinants of value
relative valueof the yen is determined in foreign exchange markets by the economic forces of supply and demand. The supplyof the yen in the marketis governed by the desire of yen holders to exchange their yen for other currencies to purchase goods, services, or assets. The demandfor the yen is governed by the desire of foreigners to buy goods and services in Japan and by their interest in investingin Japan (buying yen-denominated real and financial assets).
Beginning in December 1931, Japan gradually shifted from the gold standard system to the managed currency system. [cite web | author=Japan Mint | url=http://www.mint.go.jp/eng/coin/international/coinset/page22.html 2006 | title=75th anniversary of Japan's shift from gold standard to managed currency system |accessdate=2007-12-26]
International reserve currency
Historical exchange rate
The table below shows the number of yen per U.S. dollar. (monthly average)
* Monthly close from Bloomberg
Japanese military yen
Economy of Japan
Capital flows in Japan
Monetary and fiscal policy of Japan
Balance of payments accounts of Japan (1960-90)
Ryō (Japanese coin)
Standard numismatics external links
world_coin_gallery_1_url = Japan
world_coin_gallery_1_name = Japan
banknote_world_1_url = japan
banknote_world_1_name = Japan
dollarization_1_url = asia
dollarization_1_name = Asia
gfd_1_url = Japan
gfd_1_name = Japan
gfd_data_1_url = 4014
gfd_data_1_name = Japan Yen
show_gfd_excel = Y
* [http://www.imes.boj.or.jp/cm/english_htmls/faq.htm Japanese currency FAQ] in [http://www.imes.boj.or.jp/cm/english_htmls/index.htm Currency Museum, Bank of Japan]
* [http://www.japanlinked.com/about_japan/living/money.html Money in Japan. A guide while traveling.]
* [http://www.taprofessional.de/charts/Dollar-Yen-Line-Chart.htm Chart: US-Dollar in Yen]
* [http://www.taprofessional.de/charts/Yen-Euro-Line-Chart.htm Chart: 100 Yen in Euro]
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