- Liaodong Peninsula
The Liáodōng Peninsula (zh-st|s=辽东半岛|t=遼東半島) is a
peninsulain the Liáoníng province of northeastern China, historically known in the west as southern east- Manchuria. "Liaodong" (formerly spelled "Liaotung") means "East of the Liáo". The Liáo River was a river during the Warring Statesthat divided the Yan commandries of Liáoxī (zh-st|s=辽西|t=遼西) (west of the Liáo) and Liaodong.
The peninsula is situated at the north of the
Yellow Sea, between the Bóhăi Sea to the west and the Korea Bayto the east.
It forms the southern part of a mountain belt that continues northward in the
Changbai Mountains. The part of the mountain range on the peninsula is known as the Qian Mountains.
seaports, Dalianwhich lies midway along the peninsula at its narrowest point and Port Arthur/ Lushun(now a consolidation of several municipalities known as Lüshun City), which is located at its southernmost point. Lüshun City is the governmental district seat of the 2 southernmost "Dalian districts" (county-level government), known as Lüshunkou(literally "Lüshun Port"), organized under the sub-provincial cityof Dalian. Lüshun/Port Arthur has a large lake-like naturally-protected harbor and semi-sheltered outer roadstead making it very attractive to imperialist powers at the end of the nineteenth century. Dalny/Dairen/Dalian's harbor required greater investment, initially supplied by the Russians, but turned into a first class city under the Japanese period of administration (1905–1945). The two ports are about convert|25|mi|km|0 apart by rail, but about convert|40|nmi|km|-1 apart by sea. Lüshun is 550 rail miles south of the Manchurian railroad hub city of Harbinon the historic Southern Manchurian Railway (today's China Far East Railway(CER), which construction was one of the underlying causes of the Russo-Japanese War).
The peninsula was an important area of conflict during the
First Sino-Japanese War(1894–1895), which the Japanese won. Defeat precipitated decline in the Chinese Empire which was exploited by colonial powerswho extracted numerous concessions. The peninsula was cededto Japan by the Treaty of Shimonosekiof April 17, 1895but this was rescinded after the Triple Interventionof April 23, 1895by Russia, France and Germany. In the aftermath of this intervention, the Russian government pressured the ruling Qing dynastyto lease Liaodong and the strategically important Lüshunkou (Port Arthur) for use by the Russian Navy. This caused resentment in Japan and was a factor leading to the Russo-Japanese War(1904–1905) when negotiations concerning the peninsula, Manchuria, and Koreabroke down, due to Russia's unwillingness to treat seriously with Japan as another power. As in the First Sino-Japanese War the Liaodong peninsula was the scene of major fighting in the Russo-Japanese War. As a consequence of the Treaty of Portsmouth( September 5, 1905), which ended the Russo-Japanese War, both sides agreed to evacuate Manchuria and return its sovereignty to China, but Japan was given the lease for the Liaotung/Liaodong.
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