- Caecilia Metella
Caecilia Metella was the name of all women in the Caecilii Metelli family, since feminine names were taken from the father's "gens" and "cognomen" declined in the female form.
The written sources of Roman history cite at least four women called Caecilia Metella. The famous tomb of Caecilia Metella on the Appian Way belongs to a fifth Caecilia Metella.
Caecilia Metella Dalmatica (died around
80 BC) was daughter of Lucius Caecilius Metellus Dalmaticus, " Pontifex Maximus" in 115 BC. Dalmatica's first marriage, as a young "matrona", was to Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, an aging politician at the peak of his power. The patricianScaurus was " princeps senatus" (president of the Senate) and a traditional ally of her family. Dalmatica bore Scaurus two children: Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (II) and Aemilia Scaura, second wife of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Following Scaurus' death, Dalmatica married Lucius Cornelius Sulla. In 86 BC, Gaius Mariusobtained his seventh consulship and outlawed his political enemies, ordering confiscation of property and several persecutions. Sulla, at the time in the East fighting king Mithridates VI of Pontus, was at the top of the list. Dalmatica was forced to abandon Rome and met Sulla in Greece. There, she gave birth to the twins Faustus Cornelius Sulla and Fausta (married Titus Annius Milo, praetor in 54 BC). In 81 BC, following a brief civil war with the last of Marius' supporters, Sulla entered Rome and was appointed dictator. Again, Dalmatica followed her husband and became Rome's "First Lady." She died around 80 BC. Ignoring the anti-luxury laws that he drafted himself, Sulla organized a spectacular state funeral for her.
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Caecilia Metella (priestess)."
Caecilia Metella Balearica Major, elder daughter of
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus, was a Vestal Virginand a Priestessof the Goddess Juno Sospita. By her influence, the young Gaius Julius Caesarwas saved from the rage of her brother-in-law, the Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, who had sentenced him to death for refusing to divorce his wife Cinnilla. She was also later the protectress of Sextus Roscius, defended famously by Ciceroand her nephews Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer and Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos Iuniorin the celebrated defense "Pro Roscius".Fact|date=November 2007
Caecilia Metella Balearica Minor (died
89 BC) was the second daughter of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus, consul in 123 BC. Her oldest sister was a Vestal virgin. Balearica was married to Appius Claudius Pulcher, a politician of an old, although somewhat impoverished, patricianfamily. As a member of an important family and married into another, Balearica was one of Rome's most esteemed "matronas". She had a reputation of virtue and modesty, allied to an irreproachable conduct as a mother of two boys (Appius and Gaius) and three girls (Claudia Prima, Claudia Secunda, and Claudia Tertulla - this one known to history as Clodia). While pregnant with her sixth child, Balearica had a dream of Juno complaining about the neglect of her temple. As any other Roman would, she took the dream very seriously and proceeded to clean the temple herself, with the help of the censor Lucius Julius Caesar. Shortly afterwards, Balearica died in childbirth. Her youngest son was to be the notorious Publius Clodius.
Caecilia Metella Calva was daughter of
Lucius Caecilius Metellus Calvus, Consul in 142 BC, and sister of Lucius Caecilius Metellus Dalmaticusand Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus. She was married to Lucius Licinius Lucullus, Praetorin 104 BC. Instead of playing the role of a virtuous married woman, Calva engaged in a succession of scandalous affairs, mostly with slaves, that eventually led to divorce. She was the mother of Lucius Licinius Lucullus (Consul in 74 BC) and Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus(Consul in 73 BC).
Caecilia Metella or Caecilia Metella Cretica (b. c.
100 BC, fl. 69 BC) was daughter of the consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus, who was Consul in 69 BC, and a daughter-in-law of Triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus, the wealthiest great tenantof Rome, and wife Axia Tertula, apparently married to his second surviving son and heir Marcus Licinius Crassus Iunior or the Younger, who was a legate to Julius Caesar, and father of the next Consul of that name. Their son was Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (consul 30 BC), who was the first imperial consul to be denied a Triumph or the Spolia opimaby Augustusas part of a deliberate policy to stress the importance of the emperor and reduce that of individual generals. This Caecilia Metella appears to have been rather different from the other more famous Caecilia Metellas, in that she lived and died in obscurity apart from her famous son and her tomb. Her husband erected in her memory, at the top of a hill of the Appian Way, a monumental tomb of the most elegant proportions, dominant of all temples, tombs and villae of the proximity; standing on a quadrangular base seven metres high, it has on her a cylindrical body 11 metres high with 29 metres diameter; on the side of the Appian Way is still visible the following distical: CAECILIAE / Q. CRETICI F. / METELLAE CRASSUS
Caecilia Metella Celer was daughter of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer by his wife, the notorious
Clodia. In 53 BC, Metella Celer was married to Publius Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, a conservative politician, allied to her father's family. Like her mother, Metella did not content herself with a simple married life. Briefly after the wedding she started an affair with Publius Cornelius Dolabella, a man of the opposite political spectrum. Spinther divorced her in 45 BCin the midst of a huge scandal. Marcus Tullius Cicerobitterly discusses the affair in his letters, because at the time, his daughter Tullia was Dolabella's wife.
Metella went back to her family in absolute disgrace. She was still in her twenties and very beautiful. Her cousins did not hesitate in using her for political conspiracies. Metella seduced several of
Julius Caesar's intimate friends, in order to get the family name cleared after the defeat of the " Optimates" in the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. Amongst her non-political lovers is the poet Ticida, who wrote about Metella, giving her the name of Perilla. Her last known lover was one Aesopo, a wealthy member of the " equites", who supported the Caecilii Metellii for a few years. Her date of death is unknown.
Women in Rome
Caecilii Metelli family tree
* [http://www.ceciliametella.com/index2.html Mausoleum of Cecilia Metella]
*Manuel Dejante Pinto de Magalhães Arnao Metello and João Carlos Metello de Nápoles, "Metellos de Portugal, Brasil e Roma", Torres Novas, 1998
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