- Situated learning
Situated learning was first proposed by
Jean Laveand Etienne Wengeras a model of learning in a Community of practice. At its simplest, Situated Learning is learning that takes place in the same context in which it is applied. Lave and Wenger (1991) argue that learning should not be viewed as simply the transmission of abstract and decontextualised knowledge from one individual to another, but a social process whereby knowledge is co-constructed; they suggest that such learning is situated in a specific context and embedded within a particular social and physical environment.
Lave and Wenger assert that situated learning "is not an educational form, much less a pedagogical strategy" (1991, p.40). However, since their writing, others have advocated different pedagogies that include situated activity:
Workshops, kitchens, greenhouses and gardens used as classrooms
role playingin the real world setting, including most military training(much of which, though, takes a behaviorist approach)
Field trips including archaeological digs and participant-observerstudies in an alien culture
*On the job training including
apprenticeshipand Cooperative education
*Sports practice and music practice and art are situated learning by definition, as the exact actions in the real setting are those of practice - with the same equipment or instruments
Many of the original examples from Lave and Wenger (1991) concerned adult learners, and situated learning still has a particular resonance for
adult education. For example, [http://www.chris-kimble.com/CLEE/Book_1/Chapters/Chapter_15.html Hansman] (Kimble and Hildreth 2008) shows how adult learners discover, shape, and make explicit their own knowledge through situated learning within a community of practice. A number of similar examples can be found in the ERIC digests [ [http://www.ericdigests.org/ ERICDigests.Org - Providing full-text access to ERIC Digests ] ] (See references below for some specific examples of this).
Communities of practice
Jean Laveand Etienne Wenger(1991) Situated Learning. Legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press
*cite book | author=
Chris Kimbleand Paul Hildreth| year=2008 | title=Communities of Practice: Creating Learning Environments for Educators | publisher=Information Age Publishing | isbn=1593118635
* [http://www.ericdigests.org/1998-3/adult-education.html Situated Learning in Adult Education. ERIC Digest.]
* [http://ericdigests.org/1996-2/work.html New Ways of Learning in the Workplace. ERIC Digest.]
* [http://bcq.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/67/2/168 The Odyssey of Ph.D. Students Becoming a Community of Practice]
* [http://www.ala.asn.au/conf/2003/carden.pdf Probationary Constables and their journey through a community of practice]
* [http://cfp.learning-inquiry.info/ Learning Inquiry: an academic journal centered on learning]
*Leonard Low and Margaret O'Connell (2006) [https://olt.qut.edu.au/udf/OLTCONFERENCEPAPERS/gen/static/papers/Low_OLT2006_paper.pdf Learner-Centric Design of Digital Mobile Learning] Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology
* [http://www.usca.edu/essays/vol14summer2005.html Foulger, T.S. (2005). Innovating Professional Development Standards: A Shift to Utilize Communities of Practice. Essays in Education, 14. Retrieved Nov 11, 2007, from http://www.usca.edu/essays/vol14summer2005.html]
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