The "IAST|Brāhmaṇa"s (Devanagari: _sa. ब्राह्मणं) are part of the Hindu "śruti" literature. They are commentaries on the four Vedas, detailing the proper performance of rituals.

Each Vedic "shakha" (school) had its own Brahmana, and it is not known how many of these texts existed during the Mahajanapadas period. About twenty Brahmana have survived into modern times.

The Brahmanas were seminal in the development of later Indian thought and scholarship, including Hindu philosophy, predecessors of Vedanta, law, astronomy, geometry, linguistics (Panini), the concept of Karma, or the stages in life such as brahmacarya, grihastha and eventually, sannyasi. Some Brahmanas contain sections that are Aranyakas or Upanishads in their own right.


Each Brahmana is associated with one of the four Vedas, and within the tradition of that Veda with a particular shakha or school:
**Shakala shakha: Aitareya Brahmana (AB)
**Bashkala shakha Fact|date=April 2008: Kaushitaki Brahmana or IAST|Śāṅkhāyana Brahmana (KB, ŚānkhB)
**Kauthuma: Tandyamaha or IAST|Pañcaviṃśa Brahmana (PB), IAST|Śādviṃśa Brahmana (IAST|ṢadvB)
**Samavidhana Brahmana
**Arseya Brahmana
**Devatadhyaya or Daivata Brahmana
**Mantra or Chandogya Brahmana (MB)
**Samhitopanisad Brahmana
**Vamsa Brahmana
**Jaiminiya Brahmana (JB)
**Jaiminiya Arseya Brahmana
**Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana (JUB)
**Krishna: the Brahmana sections are integrated into the Samhitas:
***Maitrayani Samhita (MS) and an Aranyaka (= accented Maitr. Up.)
***(Caraka)Katha Samhita (KS); the Katha school has an additional fragmentary Brahmana (KathB) and Aranyaka (KathA)
***Kapisthalakatha Samhita (KpS), and a few fragments of its Brahmana
***Taittiriya Samhita (TS). The Taittiriya school has an additional Taittiriya Brahmana (TB) and Aranyaka (TA) as well as the late Vedic Vadhula Anvakhyana (Br.)
***Vajasaneyi Madhyandina: Shatapatha Brahmana, Madhyadina recension (SBM)
***Kanva: Shatapatha Brahmana, Kanva recension (SBK)
**Paippalada: Gopatha Brahmana


*Arthur Berriedale Keith, "Rigveda Brahmanas" (1920); reprint: Motilal Banarsidass (1998) ISBN-13: 978-8120813595.
*A. C. Banerjea, "Studies in the IAST|Brāhmaṇas", Motilal Banarsidass (1963)
*E. R. Sreekrishna Sarma, "IAST|Kauṣītaki-Brāhmaṇa", Wiesbaden (1968, comm. 1976).
*Dumont,P.E. [translations of sections of TB 3 ] . PAPS 92 (1948), 95 (1951), 98 (1954), 101 (1957), 103 (1959), 104 (1960), 105 (1961), 106 (1962), 107 (1963), 108 (1964), 109 (1965), 113 (1969).
* Caland, W. Über das Vadhulasutra; Eine zweite / dritte / vierte Mitteilung über das Vadhulasutra. [= Vadhula Sutra and Brahmana fragments (Anvakhyana)] . Acta Orientalia 1, 3-11; AO II, 142-167; AO IV, 1-41, 161-213; AO VI, 97-241.1922. 1924. 1926. 1928. [= Kleine Schriften, ed. M. WItzel. Stuttgart 1990, pp. 268-541]
* Caland. W. Pancavimsa-Brahmana. The Brahmana of twenty five chapters. (Bibliotheca Indica 255.) Calcutta 1931. Repr. Delhi 1982.
*Bollée, W. B. Sadvinsa-Brahmana. Introd., transl., extracts from the commentaries and notes. Utrecht 1956.
*Bodewitz, H. W. Jaiminiya Brahmana I, 1-65. Translation and commentary with a study of the Agnihotra and Pranagnihotra. Leiden 1973.
*Bodewitz, H. W. The Jyotistoma Ritual. Jaiminiya Brahmana I,66-364. Introduction, translation and commentary. Leiden 1990.
*Gaastra, D. Das Gopatha Brahmana, Leiden 1919
*Bloomfield, M. The Atharvaveda and the Gopatha-Brahmana (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde II.1.b) Strassburg 1899

External links

* [ GRETIL etexts]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BRAHMANA — BR HMA ビA Le Veda contient essentiellement trois types de textes: des poèmes et des strophes isolées, qui ensemble constituent ce que l’on nomme chandas (poésie); des formules rituelles (yajus ); enfin, de longs développements en prose, de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Brahmana — Brāhmana Textes classiques du monde indien Shruti Veda Rigveda Samaveda Yajur veda Atharvaveda Brahmanas Aranyakas Upanishad Smrit …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Brahmăna — Brahmăna, 1) im Sanskrit so v.w. Brahmanen; 2) Theil der Vedas, welche den dogmatischen Theil der Indischen Religion enthalten …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Brahmana — Brāhmana, dogmatisch spekulative Traktate der ind. Literatur, die eine Art Kommentar zu den Veda (s.d.) im engern Sinne bilden …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • brahmana — brahmána ž zb. DEFINICIJA hind. brahmanistički svećenički priručnici, hinduske svete knjige koje tumače tekstove Veda (stvarane od o. 1000. pr. Kr. do 4. st.), sadržavaju i svjetovne teme ETIMOLOGIJA vidi brahman …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Brahmana — Schriften des Hinduismus Shruti Veda Rigveda Samaveda Yajurveda Atharvaveda Brahmanas Aranyakas Upanishaden …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Brahmana — /brah meuh neuh/, n. Hinduism. one of a class of prose pieces dealing with Vedic rituals and sacrifices. Cf. Veda. [ < Skt brahmana] * * * Any of a number of discourses on the Vedas that explain their use in ritual sacrifices and the symbolism of …   Universalium

  • Brahmana — Cualquiera de varios comentarios acerca de los Veda que explican el significado de los sacrificios rituales y el simbolismo de los actos de los sacerdotes. Se remontan a 900–600 BC, y constituyen las fuentes históricas más antiguas del ritual… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • brahmana — noun a) The brahmin varna in Hinduism. (Plural: brahmana.) b) A brahmin; a member of the brahmana (sense 1). Syn: brahman, brahmin …   Wiktionary

  • Brahmana —    Brahmanas are texts that delineate the work ings of the BRAHMAN in its oldest sense of the power, efficacy, or energy of Vedic ritual. They are considered SHRUTI or revelation and are part of the VEDAS. They accompany the MANTRA text of the… …   Encyclopedia of Hinduism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”