- Virginia Company
The Virginia Company refers collectively to a pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I in
1606with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America[ [http://www.virginiaplaces.org/boundaries/boundaryk.html How Virginia Got Its Boundaries, by Karl R Phillips ] ] . The two companies, called the "Virginia Company of London" (or the London Company) and the "Virginia Company of Plymouth" (or Plymouth Company) operated with identical charters but with differing territories. An area of overlapping territory was created. Within the area of overlap, the two companies were not permitted to establish colonies within one hundred miles of each other. The Plymouth Company never fulfilled its charter ,and its territory that later became New England was then also claimed by France.
The charters of the companies called for a local council for each, but with ultimate authority residing with the King through the Council of Virginia [ [http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/D/1601-1650/virginia/ordi.htm From Revolution to Reconstruction: Documents: An Ordinance And Constitution Of The Virginia Company ] ] in England.
The Plymouth Company
The Plymouth Company was permitted to establish settlement(s) between the 38th parallel and the 45th parallel (roughly between the upper reaches of the
Chesapeake Bayand the current U.S.- Canadaborder)
August 13, 1607, the Plymouth Company established the Popham Colonyalong the Kennebec Riverin present day Maine. However, it was abandoned after about 1 year, and the Plymouth Company became inactive.
With the religious
pilgrims who arrived aboard the " Mayflower", a successor company to the Plymouth Company eventually established a permanent settlement in Plymouth, Massachusettsin 1620 in what is now New England.
The London Company
By the terms of the charter, the London Company was permitted to establish a colony of 100 miles square between the 34th parallel and the 41st parallel (approximately between
Cape Fearand Long Island Sound), and also owned a large portion of Atlantic Ocean and inland Canada.
May 14, 1607, the London Company established the Jamestown Settlement about 40 miles inland along the James River, a major tributary of the Chesapeake Bayin present-day Virginia. The future of the settlement at Jamestown was precarious for its first 5 years. The president of the third Jamestown Council, Captain John Smith, was both a strong leader and a good diplomatwho was able to form a positive relationship with the Native Americans.
In 1609, a new charter was granted to the London Company to add the territory of the Plymouth Company. Also in 1609, a much larger
Third Supplymission was organized. Rushed into service without the customary sea trials, the new purpose-built ship, the " Sea Venture", became flagshipof the fleet of 9 ships, with most of the leaders, food, and supplies aboard. Notable persons aboard the "Sea Venture" included the Admiral of the fleet, George Somers, Vice-Admiral Christopher Newport, the new governor for the Virginia Colony, Sir Thomas Gates, future author William Strachey, and businessman John Rolfewith his pregnant wife.
The Third Supply convoy encountered a massive storm believed to have been a
hurricanewhich lasted three days and separated them. The "Sea Venture" was leaking sea water through its new caulking, and Admiral George Somers had it driven aground on a reef to avoid sinking, saving 150 men and women, and several dogs, but destroying their ship.
archipelagowas officially named " The Somers Isles" after Admiral Somers, though was known as Bermuda [A Discovery of The Barmudas, Sylvester Jordain] . From salvaged parts of the "Sea Venture", the survivors built two smaller vessels, "Deliverance" and "Patience". 10 months later they continued on to Jamestown, leaving several men behind on the archipelago to establish possession of it. Arriving at Jamestown on May 23, 1610, they found that over 80% of the 600 colonists had perished during what became known as the "starving time". The Bermuda survivors had anticipated finding a thriving colony at Jamestown and had brought little food or supplies with them. The colonists at Jamestown were saved only by the timely arrival of a supply mission headed by Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, better known as "Lord Delaware", less than 3 weeks later. In 1612, The London Company's Royal Charter was officially extended to include The Somers Isles as part of the Virginia Colonyin 1612. However, in 1615, the isles passed to a separate company, the Somers Isles Company, which had been formed by the same shareholders as the London Company.
To the disappointment of its investors, the Virginia Company of London failed to discover
goldor silverin Virginia. However, the company did establish trade of various types. The biggest trade breakthrough came when colonist John Rolfe introduced several sweeter strains of tobacco[ [http://www.foundersofamerica.org/johnrolfe.html Welcome to Founders of America! ] ] from the Caribbean [ [http://www.historyisfun.org/Economics-of-Tobacco.htm Economics of Tobacco ] ] (rather than the harsh-tasting kind native to Virginia) [ [http://www.virtualjamestown.org/jrolfe.html Virtual Jamestown ] ] . Rolfe's new tobacco strains led to a strong export for the London Company and other early English colonies, and helped balance a trade deficit with Spain.
Jamestown Massacrewhich devastated that colony in 1622 brought on unfavorable attention, particularly from King James I who had originally chartered the Company. There was a period of debate in Britain between Company officers who wished to guard the original charter, and those who wished the Company ended. In 1624, the King dissolved the Company and made Virginia a royal colony [The First Seventeen Years: Virginia, 1607-1624, Charles E. Hatch, Jr.] .
*David A. Price, "Love and Hate in Jamestown: John Smith, Pocahontas, and the Heart of A New Nation", Alfred A. Knopf, 2003
* [http://www.learner.org/channel/workshops/primarysources/virginia/docs/svc.html Second Charter of Virginia]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.