- WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 protest activity
Protest activity surrounding the
WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999, which was to be the launch of a new millennial round of tradenegotiations, occurred on November 30, 1999(nicknamed "N30" on similar lines to J18 and similar mobilisations), when the World Trade Organization(WTO) convened at the Washington State Convention and Trade Centerin Seattle, Washington, United States. The negotiations were quickly overshadowed by massive and controversial street protests outside the hotels and the Seattle Convention Center, in what became the second phase of the anti-globalization movementin the United States. The scale of the demonstrations—even the lowest estimates put the crowd at over 40,000—dwarfed any previous demonstration in the United States against a world meeting of any of the organizations generally associated with economic globalization(such as the WTO, the International Monetary Fund(IMF), or the World Bank). [Seattle Police Department: "The Seattle Police Department After Action Report: World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference Seattle, Washington November 29 – December 3, 1999". p. 41.
"Police estimated the size of this march [the labor march] in excess of 40,000."] The events are sometimes referred to as the Battle of Seattle.
Organizations and planning
Planning for the demonstrations began months in advance and included local, national, and international organizations. Among the most notable participants were national and international NGOs (especially those concerned with labor issues, the environment, and consumer protection),
labor unions (including the AFL-CIO), student groups, religiously-based groups ( Jubilee 2000), and anarchists (some of whom formed a black bloc).
The coalition was loose, with some opponent groups focused on opposition to WTO policies (especially those related to
free trade), with others motivated by pro-Labor, anti-Capitalist, or environmental agendas. Many of the NGOs represented at the protests came with credentials to participate in the official meetings, while also planning various educational and press events. The AFL-CIO, with cooperation from its member unions, organized a large permitted rally and march from Seattle Centerto downtown.
Others, however, were more interested in taking
direct actionincluding both civil disobedienceand acts of vandalism and property destruction to disrupt the meeting. Several groups were loosely organized together under the Direct Action Network(DAN), with a plan to disrupt the meetings by blocking streets and intersections downtown to prevent delegates from reaching the Washington State Convention and Trade Center, where the meeting was to be held.
Certain activists, notably a group of mostly-young anarchists from
Eugene, Oregoncite web
title=In Oregon, Anarchists Act Locally
anarchists had protested that summer),cite web
title=Local unrest followed cycle of social movements
last=Bishop] advocated more confrontational tactics, and planned and conducted deliberate
vandalismPOV-statement|date=March 2008 of corporate properties in downtown Seattle. In a subsequent communique, they listed the particular corporations targeted, which they contend to have committed corporate crime:
Activists of the successful 1998 campaign against the
Multilateral Agreement on Investment(MAI) were convinced that the WTO would be used by transnational corporate influencersclarify|date=October 2008 as a forum in which to advance the global corporate agenda to the detriment of worldwide civil societyand especially the interests of third-world countries.
As a token of the effectiveness of democratic lobbying at local level, Seattle declared itself an MAI Free-Zone by unanimous vote in the City Council on Monday, April 12, joining numerous cities both in the US and around the world. [ [http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/zone-cn.htm Seattle declares itself "MAI-Free Zone"!] (Third World Network)]
On 12 July, the "Financial Times" reported that the latest United Nations Human Development report advocated "principles of performance for multinationals on labour standards, fair trade and environmental protection. . . needed to counter the negative effects of globalisation on the poorest nations". The report itself argued that "An essential aspect of global governance is responsibility to people — to equity, to justice, to enlarging the choices of all". [ [http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr1999/ "Globalization with a Human Face"] UNHDR, 1999]
On 16 July, Helene Cooper of the "Wall Street Journal" warned of an impending "massive mobilization against globalization" being planned for the end-of-year Seattle WTO conference. [ [http://www.globalexchange.org/campaigns/wto/wsj071699.html "Globalization Foes Plan to Protest WTO's Seattle Round Trade Talks"] ] Next day, the London "Sunday Independent" savaged the WTO and appeared to side with the organisers of the rapidly developing storm of protest: "
The way it has used [its] powers is leading to a growing suspicion that its initials should really stand for World Take Over. In a series of rulings it has struck down measures to help the world's poor, protect the environment, and safeguard health in the interests of private—usually American - companies.""
"The WTO seems to be on a crusade to increase private profit at the expense of all other considerations, including the well-being and quality of life of the mass of the world's people," says Ronnie Hall, trade campaigner at Friends of the Earth International. "It seems to have a relentless drive to extend its power." [ [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/StopWTORound/message/56 THE HIDDEN TENTACLES OF THE WORLD'S MOST SECRET BODY] Sunday Independent, 17 July 1999]
On November 16, a fortnight before the conference, President Clinton issued Executive Order 13141—Environmental Review of Trade Agreements [ [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=56947 Presidential Executive Order 13141] ] which committed the United States to a policy of "assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements." This was a surprise to the negotiators of the developed nations and corporate sector, but an endorsement of the criticisms of the Third World and non-government organizations (NGOs) bent on blunting the perceived ambitions of the Millennium Round's hopeful promoters.fact|date=October 2008
On the morning of
November 30 1999, the Direct Action Network's plan was put into action. Several hundred activists arrived in the deserted streets near the convention center and began to take control of key intersections. Over the next few hours, a number of marchers began to converge on the area from different directions. These included a student march from the north and a march of citizens of the developing world who marched in from the south. Some demonstrators held rallies, others held teach-ins and at least one group staged an early-morning street party. Meanwhile, a number of protesters still controlled the intersections using lockdown formations.
The control of the intersections, plus the sheer numbers of protesters in the area, prevented delegates from getting from their hotels to the Convention Center. It also had the effect of cutting the police forces in two: the police who had formed a cordon around the convention center were completely cut off from the rest of the city. The police outside of the area eventually decided to attempt to break through the protesters' lines in the south.
That morning, the
King County Sheriff's Officeand Seattle Police Departmentfired pepper spray, tear gascanisters, percussion grenades, and eventually rubber bulletsat protesters at several intersections in an attempt to reopen the blocked streets and allow as many WTO delegates as possible through the blockade. [Seattle Police Department, After-Action Report, pp. 39-40
Draft King Country Sheriff's Office Final Report, II.H.2.
WTO Accountability Review Committee, "Combined Timeline of Events During the WTO Ministerial, 1999", Tuesday, Nov. 30: 9:09 AM & 10 AM.
A recording of the Seattle Police Department radio channel command-5 is also available, but has a gap from 0836 to 0840.
Highleyman, Liz, "Scenes from the Battle of Seattle".
St. Clair, Jeffrey, "Seattle Diary".
Gillham, Patrick F., and Marx, Gary T., "Complexity and Irony in Policing: The World Trade Organization in Seattle".
de Armond, Paul, "Netwar in the Emerald City: WTO Protest Strategy and Tactics", pp. 216-217.] At 6th Avenue and Union Street, the crowd threw them back.
The situation was complicated around noon, when black-clad anarchists (in a formation known as a
black bloc) began smashing windows and vandalizing storefronts, beginning with Fox's Gem Shop. This produced some of the most famous and controversial images of the protests. This set off a chain-reaction of sorts, with additional protesters pushing dumpsters into the middle of intersections and lighting them on fire, police vehicles turned-over, non-black-blockers joining in the property destruction, and a general disruption of all commercial activity in downtown Seattle.
Other protesters attempted to physically block the activities of the
black bloc. Seattle police, led by Chief Norm Stamper, did not react immediately, however, because they had been convinced by protest organizers during the protest-permit process that peaceful organizers would quell these kinds of activities.
The police were eventually overwhelmed by the mass of protesters downtown, including many who had chained themselves together and were blocking intersections. Meanwhile, the late-morning labor-organized rally and march drew tens of thousands; though the intended march route had them turning back before they reached the convention center, most ignored the marshals and joined what had become a street-carnival-like scene downtown.
The opening of the meetings was delayed, and it took police much of the afternoon and evening to clear the streets. Seattle mayor
Paul Schellimposed a curfewand a 50-block "No-Protest Zone".
Over 600 people were arrested over the next few days. One particularly violent confrontation occurred the evening of November 30, when police pursued protesters fleeing from downtown into the bohemian neighborhood of Capitol Hill, using tear gas, pepper spray, and physical force. [ [http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1382/MR1382.ch7.pdf Rand Corp report] , pg 24. ] A police order that day also banned the use or sale of gas masks downtown, provoking criticism. [ [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/civl02.shtml] ]
Misinformation in the media
"The New York Times" printed an erroneous article that stated that protesters at the 1999 WTO convention in Seattle threw
Molotov cocktails at police. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A07EFD81E3CF937A35755C0A9669C8B63&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss Police Brace For Protests In Windsor And Detroit] ] Two days later, "The New York Times" printed a correction saying that the protest were mostly peaceful and no protesters were accused of throwing objects at delegates or the police, but the original error persisted in later accounts in the mainstream media. [ [http://www.de-fact-o.com/fact_read.php?id=12 De-Fact-o.com: "Origins of the Molotov Myth"] ]
The Seattle City Council also dispelled these rumors with its own investigation findings:
"The level of panic among police is evident from radio communication and from their inflated crowd estimates, which exceed the numbers shown on news videotapes. ARC investigators found the rumors of "Molotov cocktails" and sale of flammables from a supermarket had no basis in fact. But, rumors were important in contributing to the police sense of being besieged and in considerable danger." [ [http://www.cityofseattle.net/wtocommittee/arcfinal.pdf Seattle City Council findings] ]
An editorial in "The Nation" disputed Molotov cocktails have ever been thrown at an anti-globalization protest within the US. [ [http://portland.indymedia.org/en/2004/08/295733.shtml David Graeber "The Myth of Protest Violence"] The Nation. ]
Controversy over the city's response to the protests resulted in the resignation of Seattle police chief Norm Stamper, [Kimberly A.C. Wilson, [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/cops071.shtml Embattled police chief resigns] , "Seattle Post-Intelligencer", December 7, 1999. Accessed online May 19, 2008.] and arguably played a role in Schell's loss to
Greg Nickelsin the 2001 mayoral primary election. [ Dan Savage, [http://www.thestranger.com/seattle/Content?oid=2736 Paul is Dead: Norm's Resignation Ain't Gonna Save Schell's Butt] , "The Stranger", issue of December 9 – December 15, 1999. Accessed online May 19, 2008.] [Rick Anderson, [http://www.seattleweekly.com/2004-11-24/news/whatever-happened-to-hippie-bitch-forman.php Whatever Happened to 'Hippie Bitch' Forman?] , "Seattle Weekly", November 24, 2004. Accessed online May 19, 2008.]
Similar tactics, on the part of both police and protesters, were repeated at subsequent meetings of the WTO, IMF/
World Bank, Free Trade Area of the Americas, and other international organizations, as well as the Democratic and Republican National Conventions in the U.S.fact|date=May 2008
To many in
North American anarchist and radical circles, the Seattle WTO riots, protests, and demonstrations were a success and are thought of as the most recent victories in the U.S. Prior to the "Battle of Seattle," there was almost no mention of "anti-globalization" in the US media, while the protests are seen as having forced the media to report on "why" anybody would oppose the WTO. [Owens, Lynn, and Palmer, L. Kendall: "Making the News: Anarchist Counter Public Relations on the World Wide Web", p. 9.
They state that " [t] he protests in Seattle brought attention not only to the WTO and its policies, but also to the widespread organized opposition to those policies."] However, this was only the second phase of these mass demonstrations. The first began on
12 December 1997in which newly formed grass-roots organizations blockaded Melbourne, Perth, Sydneyand Darwin city centers. ["Seattle Explosion: 2 Years Too Late", Rhoderick Gates, "Our Time", Nov. 31 1999.]
January 16, 2004, the city settled with 157 individuals arrested outside of the no-protest zone during the WTO events, agreeing to pay them a total of $250,000. [ [http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=20040117&slug=wto17m "City to pay protesters $250,000 to settle WTO suit"] Seattle Times, 17 January 2004] On January 30, 2007, a federal jury found that the City of Seattle had violated protesters' Fourth Amendment constitutional rightsby arresting them without probable cause or hard evidence. [ [http://apnews.myway.com//article/20070130/D8MVTIIG0.html My Way ] ] [cite news|url=http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/301732_wto30ww.html|author=Colin McDonald|title=Jury says Seattle violated WTO protesters' rights|date=January 30, 2007|publisher=Seattle Post Intelligencer|accessdate=2007-12-27]
The massive size of the protest pushed the city of Seattle $3 million over their estimated budget of $6 million, partly due to city cleanup and police overtime bills. In addition, the damage to commercial businesses from vandalism and lost sales has been estimated at $20 million. [ [http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2000/01/06/wto000106.html WTO protests hit Seattle in the pocketbook] , CBC News, January 6, 2000]
* [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/wto/ "Seattle Post-Intelligencer" "The WTO Legacy"—Index of stories and pictures]
* [http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/special/wto/ "Seattle Times" index of stories and dates]
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/StopWTORound/messages/393 International newsgroup: StopWTORound] 1999 archive with detailed coverage of events before and after Seattle
* [http://groups.google.com/group/flora.mai-not/topics?start=28250&sa=N Mai-not Discussion: Extensive contemporary documentation and comment]
*Parrish, Geov. " [http://web.archive.org/web/20041010180410/http://www.seattleweekly.com/features/9946/features-parrish.shtml Beyond Gandhi] ". "Seattle Weekly". November 24, 1999.
*Gates, Rhoderick. "Seattle Explosion: 2 Years Too Late". "Our Time", November 31, 1999.
*Movie [http://www.corrugate.org/this_is_what_democracy_looks_like/this_is_what_democracy_looks_like "This Is What Democracy Looks Like"] .
*George, Susan [http://mondediplo.com/2000/01/07george "Fixing or nixing the WTO"] Le Monde diplomatique, January 2000.
*Monbiot, George [http://www.guardian.co.uk/print/0,,3942169-103635,00.html "Still bent on world conquest"] , Guardian, London, December 16, 1999
*cite web| date=
1999| url=http://www.black-rose.com/seattle-wto.html|title =Scenes from the Battle of Seattle| publisher =Black Rose Web Pages|last =Highleyman| first =Liz| accessdate =2008-03-28
*"The Battle In Seattle: The Story Behind and Beyond the WTO Demonstrations", by Janet Thomas, Fulcrum Publishing, 2000 (book).
* [http://www.bullfrogfilms.com/catalog/30fr.html 30 Frames a Second: The WTO in Seattle 2000] , a documentary film shot during the protests.
*Before the WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999, there were large organized protests against the 1988 World Bank/IMF meetings in Berlin. [http://www.daysofdissent.org.uk/berlin.htm]
* [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=9073827608399871128 Breaking the Spell] - Documentary about the WTO protests with footage of the riots on the ground.
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20041011122237/http://flag.blackened.net/~global/aaconvergence.htm Call for direct action convergence] ; flag.blackened.net accessed October 11, 2004 by the
*Geov Parrish, [http://www.seattleweekly.com/features/9935/features-parrish.shtml The new anarchists: In Eugene, a youth-fueled movement breaks windows to ask the big questions] , "Seattle Weekly", September 2-8, 1999.
* [http://www.infoshop.org/no2wto.html No 2 WTO] on Infoshop.org.
* [http://www.npr.org/programs/specials/2000/reporters/seattle_crane.html Paul Byron Crane in Seattle WTO comment on NPR Radio New Millennium reports]
*Paul de Armond, [http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1382/MR1382.ch7.pdf Netwar in the Emerald City] -
*Paul de Armond, [http://www.albionmonitor.com/seattlewto/index.html Storming Seattle] - Albion Monitor
*Rob Sharp, [http://film.guardian.co.uk/news/story/0,,1863776,00.html Charlize now faces her own battle of Seattle] , "The Guardian", September 3, 2006: forthcoming Hollywood movie about the Seattle events.
*Stephanie Zimmerman's [http://www.zmedia.org/WTO/N30.htm WTO protest diary] on ZMedia.org.
* [http://www.thisisdemocracy.org/ This Is What Democracy Looks Like] , a documentary film shot during the protests and contains interviews with many of the protest leaders
* [http://content.lib.washington.edu/wtoweb/index.html University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – WTO Seattle Collection] A collection of images depicting the protests of the WTO ministerial meeting held in Seattle on November 29 - December 3, 1999.
* [http://depts.washington.edu/wtohist/index.htm University of Washington WTO History Project] A collection of interviews with protest organizers and participants, and other documentation concerning the 1999 WTO protest.
* [http://youtube.com/watch?v=rhFvSRWYusc&search=wto/ Video: WTO Seattle police abuse]
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