- Court uniform and dress
On formal royal occasions in monarchies the dress worn by those present has in the past been prescribed by official regulations.
Court dress (as distinguished from court uniform mentioned in the section below) is worn by all men not entitled to court uniform or military uniform on all occasions of state where such are customarily worn. Court occasions include courts, state balls, and evening state parties, and levées. Courts are for the presentation of women, levées for men.
Peers' robes were worn over normal dress, which gradually became stylised as the court suit. It was only from the late eighteenth century that court dress became fossilised. By the early to mid eighteenth century velvet was largely confined to court dress. Court dress was obligatory in
Westminster Abbeyfor all not wearing official or lordly apparel.
During the seventeenth century, gentlemen's court dress was largely determined by two related influences, the retention of out-dated styles, producing a distinctive form of dress, and an interest in military uniform. The first produced the court suit, a coat with tails, waistcoat and knee breeches, worn with silk stockings, and a formal court sword with a cut-steel hilt and embellishments, and bicorne hat. The court suit has undergone a number of changes since the eighteenth century. However, apart from changes in the cut of the sleeves and shoulders, there was little basic alteration until the third quarter of the nineteenth century.
In the eighteenth century, dress worn at court comprised gold and silver stuff, brocades, velvets and cloth coats. They were always embroidered, and worn with waistcoats generally of a different colour- gold or silver brocade, damask, silk or satin, heavily embroidered or laced in silver or gold. From the 1730s at least cloth was popular for court wear. By the 1780s dress was established as dark cloth or velvet, embroidered in silk or metal, single-breasted silk waistcoat (usually white), with the fronts curved away.
From 1810, the
Lord Chamberlainlaid down regulations for court dress. In the nineteenth century court dress coats were commonly black, brown, dark green, purple, or blue. Breeches matched, or could be silk of a similar colour. The coat, and sometimes the breeches, were embroidered. The waistcoat was generally white satin, sometimes embroidered. These were worn with white silk stockings, black buckled shoes, and sword. A wig-bag was found on the back of the neck. A crescent-shaped chapeau-bras, known as an opera-hat, developed in the 1760s-70s from the three-cornered hat. In the second decade of the nineteenth century, this hat became known simply as the cocked hat.
In the 1830s and 40s, the full court dress was sometimes decorated with embroidery, and sometimes not. Cloth was most general, but velvet was also used. For levées cloth trousers were worn.
The court suit consisted of a coat and breeches of fine wool cloth, or increasingly from 1840, velvet, the waistcoat of white or cream silk, single breasted, without lapels and cut with points at the front. It would be embroidered in coloured silk in a conventional pattern of flowers.
New style court dress
The new style of court dress, worn from the 1840s, comprised a dark, frequently black, cloth (or silk-velvet) single-breasted dress coat (lined with black silk, except for the tail, which was white), with a stand collar. The new style is cut like a modern tail coat. This was worn with a white satin or black silk collarless waistcoat, and white neckcloth. For levées, this was worn with matching velvet trousers with a gold lace stripe down the seam. For drawing rooms matching breeches with white silk stockings, and a white neck-cloth was worn.
In 1869, the
Lord Chamberlain's Department issued new regulations for gentlemen at Court. The new style of suit was described, in which the cloth coat and breeches were replaced with silk velvet. This had been permitted before, but in place of the embroidered waistcoat was a waistcoat of plain white silk. A coat for levée dress had dark coloured cloth, single-breasted, with a stand collar, and trousers of the same material and colour as the coat, both decorated with narrow gold lace on collar, cuffs and pocket flaps, similar to that worn on certain classes of the civil uniform. A gold lace loop and button were similarly worn on the hat, and a sword of the same pattern carried.
In 1898, court dress was described as black (often very dark blue) velvet, or a dark colour cloth suit (not black). The velvet version in 1898 was without gold embroidery on the coat, and the buttons were gilt, steel or plain. The waistcoat was either black velvet, or the normal white one. Trousers were of velvet. Hats were as for the cloth version, that is beaver or silk cocked hat with black silk cockade, but the loop and buttons were gilt or steel, and there was no lace. The sword was gilt or steel with silk shoulder belt. A white neckcloth was worn. When breeches were worn they were black velvet with black silk hose. Gilt or steel buckled shoes were worn. The velvet suit was all black.
In 1898, the cloth coat had embroidery on collar, cuffs and pocket flaps was specified as similar to 5th class civil uniform (3/8th"?). The buttons were convex gilt with mounted crown in relief. Gold lace striped trousers (for levée dress) or white breeches, black or white silk stockings, gilt buckled shoes, beaver or silk cocked hat with black silk cockade gold lace loop and buttons, sword same as civil, suspended by a silk shoulder belt worn underneath the waistcoat, white neck cloth.
By 1908, the new style court dress was described as being a single-breasted black silk-velvet coat, worn open but with six buttons, a stand collar, gauntlet cuffs, four buttons at back, two at centre waist, two at bottom of tails. It was lined with black silk, except for the tail, which was white. Buttons were cut steel. The waistcoat was white satin or black silk, breeches were black velvet, with three steel buttons and steel buckles at knee. Black silk stockings, black patent leather shoes with steel buckles, black silk or beaver hat, steel hilt sword and black scabbard, belt under waistcoat, white gloves, white bow tie completed the dress. At levées velvet trousers with patent leather military boots were worn.
In 1908, a dark cloth suit was worn for courts and evening parties. This was mulberry, claret, or green, but not black or blue. It was single-breasted, worn open but with six gilt buttons and dummy button-holes. There was a stand collar, gauntlet cuffs, two buttons at back centre waist, and two at bottom of tails. Gold embroidery was on the collar, cuffs, and pocket flaps as for the 5th class. There were matching breeches, gilt buckled, a white corded silk or marcella waistcoat with four small gilt buttons. Stockings, tie, gloves, shoes, and hat were as for the new style, but gilt buckles were added to the shoes, and a gold loop on the hat. The sword was "Court Dress with gilt hilt", in a black scabbard gilt mounted, with gold knot. At levées, trousers were worn instead of breeches, to match the coat, and patent leather military boots.
The regulations for 1912 were substantially the same as in 1908. The only difference for the new style was that the pocket flaps were to have the three points on the waist seams, the coat lined with white silk, tails with black lining, trousers were now not allowed at levées. The hat has a steel loop as a black silk cockade or rosette, sword belt a black silk waist belt under the waistcoat, with blue velvet frog. The cloth court dress is still embroidered on the collar, cuffs and pocket flaps as for 5th class. Buttons are gilt, convex, mounted with the imperial crown. Matching cloth trousers with rows 5/8th" wide gold lace. At levées one could wear with the velvet or cloth dress a black or very dark Inverness cape, or a long full dark overcoat.
In 1937, the final edition of "Dress Worn at Court" was published. The new style velvet court dress included a white satin waistcoat (not white corded silk or marcella), or a new optional black velvet waistcoat. The cocked hat is described as "beaver", silk being omitted. The shirt was to be as worn with evening dress, soft front with stiff white cuffs. Trousers were still prohibited. The cloth coat was now to be decorated with gold embroidery similar to the edge of a Privy Counsellor's uniform coat (5"?).
Old style court dress
The old style suit, described in 1898 as being obsolete, was either cloth or velvet coat, with black for mourning. A white silk waistcoat, embroidered, breeches matching coat, white silk stockings, buckled shoes, court stock, sling sword, cocked hat, frill, ruffles, and wig-bag completed the old-style court dress.
In 1908, the old-style court suit was of velvet, with a cut-back frock style , single-breasted with seven buttons and button-holes, but the coat was actually fastened edge-to-edge on the chest by a hook and eye. There were six buttons at the back, two extra half-way down the tails. A black silk flash or wig-bag, and lace frill and ruffles were worn. All the other items were as for the new style, including the white satin or black silk waistcoat, which was no longer, therefore, to be embroidered (and has four small gilt buttons). The breeches were black velvet, with three steel buttons and steel buckles at knee. Black silk stockings, black patent leather shoes with steel buckles, black silk or beaver hat, steel hilt sword and black scabbard, belt under waistcoat, white gloves, white bow tie completed the dress. At levées velvet trousers with patent leather military boots were worn.
In 1912, the old style pointed pocket flaps were to have three buttons (one under each point). The waistcoat has pointed pocket flaps and three buttons under each, skirted fronts. The sword is of sling type, with slings instead of a frog on the black silk waistband.
In 1937, there was no change in old style velvet suits. Old style velvet court dress (now without wig-bag), still available from Jones Chalk Dawson.
Alternative court dress
In 1914 to the 1920s, an unofficial style was used. This replaced the normal dress formerly worn by Ministers in 1924. This comprised black dress coat with silk facings (or revers), white marcella (or the same material as coat) waistcoat, black cloth knee-breeches with three buttons and black strap fastening with black buckle, black silk stockings with plain black court shoes with bows, and white gloves. This was worn with ordinary dress shirt, collar, white bow tie, and opera hat. This is very similar to the "frock dress" introduced in the mid nineteenth century, and worn at dinners and evening parties when uniform was not worn.
Frock dress in 1883 comprised dress coat and waistcoat, breeches or pantaloons, white cravat. In 1908 this was described as being dress coat with silk facings, black or white waistcoat, black cloth or stockinette breeches, with three black buttons and buckle at knee, pantaloons not now being allowed. This was worn with plain court shoes with bows, no buckles, and the cravat was replaced by a white tie. A folding cocked hat in corded silk with a black loop and rosette and white gloves finished the dress, which was used for dinners, balls, and receptions. In 1912, the frock coat was the same, except that the hat was now an opera hat. In 1929 and 1937, this was substantially the same, except that a stiff evening dress shirt and a winged collar were added, and opera hat omitted.In the Army and Navy Stores catalogue of 1939 this dress is described as the "new pattern cloth (alternative) Evening Dress".
Legal court dress
There were slight variations in the velvet and cloth court suits in the case of the judiciary and the legal profession in 1937.
This is worn still by legal persons, and is a single-breasted cloth or velvet coat, of cut-back front style, with seven buttons although actually fastened edge-to-edge on the chest by a hook and eye arrangement. There are six buttons at the back, with two extra half way down the tails. The coat was worn with a waistcoat, breeches to match the coat, black silk stockings, buckled shoes, sling sword, cocked hat, lace frill, ruffles, black silk flash (or wig-bag). They are worn with military boots and trousers for levées. For daily wear, only the coat and waistcoat are worn, with trousers and shoes.
Full dress for the Lord Chancellor and judges comprises black cloth or velvet court coat, waistcoat, black cloth knee breeches, black silk stockings, shoes and steel buckles, plain bands, white gloves, and a beaver hat. The cloth dress is worn only on such occasions as when attending St Paul's Cathedral in state, the Lord Chancellor's Breakfast, in court on the first day of Michaelmas Law Term, and at the House of Lords when Her Majesty The Queen is personally present, and is worn with robes, wigs and lace bands. On other state and semi-state occasions, ordinary black velvet court dress of the legal style should be worn.
Female court dress
Low evening dress of any colour, with court train suspended from the shoulder. The train is not over two yards in length, and must not extend more than 18" from heel of wearer when standing. Three small white feathers in prince of Wales pattern, the centre one a little higher, slightly on the left side of the head, with the tulle veil of similar colour attached to base of feathers.
Gloves, of any colour, must be worn. Bouquets or fans are allowed.
In 1898, a special dress with sword and dirk was allowed for Chiefs and petty Chiefs as a military uniform at court. By 1908, this was extended to Highland gentlemen, and comprised kilt, sporran, doublet of cloth or velvet, Highland belts, claymore, dirk, long plaid. By 1912, the qualification was absent, and it was to comprise black silk velvet full dress doublet, set of silver celtic or crested buttons, superfine tartan full dress kilt, short trews, tartan stockings, full dress long shoulder plaid, white hair sporran, silver mounted and tassels, dirk with knife and fork, skean dhu (sock knife), patent leather shoulder belt, silver mounted, and waist belt with silver clasp. Silver mounted shoulder brooch, silver gilt pin, lace jabot, one pair buckles for instep of shoes, one pair small ankle buckles for shoes, full dress brogues. Highland claymore. Glengarry or Balmoral, crest or ornament. Cross belt of leather (or metal mounted) for carrying the sword worn over the right shoulder.
By 1937, the shoulder plaid became shoulder plaid or belted plaid. Dress sporran could be hair, fur, or skin, any pattern. Footwear was dress shoes and brogues. Highland Bonnet, feather or feathers if entitled. Highland pistols and powder horn may be worn.
Dress Doublet- of velvet, cloth or tartan. Waistcoat [if doublet is unbuttoned] - velvet, cloth, tartan; dress kilt; dress hose; plaid either shoulder or belted; shoulder brooch for plaid; dress sporran and strap or chain (sealskin, silver furnished top)- can be hair, fur, skin; Highland basket hilted sword, black leather or metal mounted scabbard; skean dhub (dress dirk); kilt pin; jabot, lace (lace, silk, satin or lawn stock); cuffs, lace; Ghillie Brogue shoes (leather uppers, soles and tassels) or Dress shoes (with buckle); Highland Bonnet; belt and buckle (leather and lined); flashes; Highland pistols and powder horn may be worn; gloves are not worn.
The full Court Uniform is made with
gold braid. It consists of a black button-down high-collar jacket with leafy golden embroidery on the chest, cuffs and long tails; white breeches, or black trousers with golden piping at each side; and a cocked hatwith white ostrichplumes.
The uniform was worn by British diplomats as well as
Governors and other colonial officials within the British Empirewhen stationed in temperate climates. A simplified white uniform was worn in tropical postings. By the early 20th century, it was required wear on ceremonial occasions for Governors-General, Lieutenant Governors, Ambassadors, and even Prime Ministers of Commonwealth Realmcountries.
By the end of the 20th century the use of this uniform had greatly diminished. Within the British Diplomatic Service only Ambassadors retained a simplified version for wear on such occasions as the presentation of credentials and then only when accredited to certain countries. Until about 1965 Foreign Office Regulations and Consular Instructions had required even junior foreign service officers to acquire this formal dress following completion of their probation period. Governors of the few remaining colonial territories have recently (c2004) been notified that the expense of providing uniforms will no longer be a recognised charge against the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Governors-General in Commonwealth countries such as Australia and New Zealand had voluntarily ceased to wear formal uniform from about 1970, after it became general practice to appoint local dignitaries to these positions. It did however reappear when the new
Lieutenant Governor of British Columbiawore the full pre-War II gold embroidered tail coat and feathered cocked hat at his Installation Ceremony on 1 October 2007. Similar uniforms were worn in numerous other (mostly European) nations. Prior to World War II it had been almost universal practice for diplomatic representatives to wear court uniforms on ceremonial occasions, even those representing republics. A notable exception were United States Ambassadors who wore white tie, morning dressor other non-official formal dress according to occasion. Today the uniform, while it still exists in several monarchies, is rarely worn. A few long established foreign services such as those of Spain and the United Kingdom still retain diplomatic uniforms for heads of mission in certain posts. Senior officials of the Russian Foreign Ministry have also retained a diplomatic uniform for wear on certain occasions, though this is basically a dark blue suit with gold collar braiding rather than the pre-revolutionary court dress of tail coat and cocked hat.
United Kingdom, court uniform was formerly worn by senior members of the Civil Service (including ambassadors), Privy Counsellors, and Royal Householdofficials, Governors and Governors-General. It is based on early nineteenth century models; these are described in detail below.
In 1820, King George IV introduced a court uniform based on the
Windsor uniform, modified by the dress of the Marshal of France. It had a dark blue single-breasted tail coat (or "coatee"), lined with black silk, the stand collar and gauntlet cuffs having scarlet velvet facings, gilt buttons, waistcoat, breeches or trousers. Soon only the Royal Household wore scarlet cloth facings, and all others had black velvet collar and cuffs. Later the facings, collar and cuffs became blue velvet.
These civil uniforms came in five classes (later six), in both full dress (for the higher grades only) or levée dress. The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class Household, as well as the 1st and 2nd class Civil Service, had full dress as well as levée dress, whereas the 4th and 5th class Household and the 3rd, 4th and 5th classes Civil Service had only levée dress for all occasions.
Full dress was worn at courts, evening state parties, drawing rooms, state balls, state concerts, etc.; levée dress was worn at levées, and other ceremonies where full dress was not worn. Neither were worn after retirement without special permission.
The class and category of the dress was indicated by the width of gold oak-leaf embroidery on the coatee: 1st class had 5", 2nd class had 4", 3rd class had 3", 4th class 2", and 5th class 3/8ths" each for full and levée dress gold lace. On both levée and full dress coatees the embroidery had a wavy edging for 1st class, and saw edge for lower classes.
In "full dress" the coatee's chest, back, tails back and front, collar, cuffs and pocket flaps were all decorated with gold oak-leaf embroidery.
Ambassadors were dressed as 1st class, but had, in addition, embroidered sleeves, and back seams. It was fastened by hooks and eyes, with dummy buttons bearing the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom(nine buttons up the front, showing between the two embroidered edges two at the waist behind, two at the bottom of back skirts). The coatee had white silk linings, and was worn with white breeches, white gloves, and patent leather court shoes with gilt buckles. The sword had black scabbard, gilt mountings, and sword knot of gold lace strap with bullion tassel; it was worn on a sword belt of white web, with white cloth frog.
In "levée dress" the coatee had the same embroidery, but only on collar, cuffs, and pocket flaps; the collar of the 1st and 2nd classes had embroidery all around the neck as on full dress, whereas that of 3rd class had front embroidery 4½" long, that of 4th class had front embroidery 3" long, and that of 5th class a saw edge only. The coatee was fastened with practical buttons bearing the Crown onto button-holes. Blue cloth trousers were worn in place of breeches, with a gold oak lace stripe, 2½" wide for 1st and 2nd classes, 2" for 3rd and 4th classes, and 1" for 5th class. White gloves were again worn, while patent leather military boots replaced the buckled shoes, and the sword accessories were similar to that on full dress, but with blue cloth frog.
Both types of dress were worn with black beaver
cocked hat, with black silk cockade; for the 1st class it had white ostrich feather border, as well as treble gold bullion loop and tassels. The 2nd class was as above, but with double gold bullion loop and tassels. The 3rd, 4th, 5th class had black ostrich feather border, plaited gold bullion loops, and no tassels.
In addition, a scarlet lined blue cloth cloak, double beasted, black velvet collar and two rows of six buttons each, with a detachable cape, was described in 1898 for outdoor wear, with a soft cloth forage cap (military staff shape), with a blue peak and scarlet welts around the crown and gold braid on top for the Household, and gold braid without scarlet welt in the case of other officials. The cap for consular use had silver instead of gold braid. A greatcoat as an alternative to the cloak, now without cape, was available in 1912.
A sixth class of civil uniform was introduced after the First World War, that of Privy Counsellors. Thereafter, the embroidery measured 5" for the new class, 4½" for 1st class, and 4" for 2nd class; whereas the 3" lace for 3rd class, 2" for 4th class and 3/8ths" for 5th class were replaced by 1" gold lace. In 1937 Ministers got Privy Council uniform. In 1908, 1912, they were still 1st class uniform. The gold oak lace stripe for Privy Counsellors trousers measured 2½", as did 1st and 2nd classes. The trouser stripes of the 3rd class remained 2", but that of 4th and 5th was now 1¾". From the early twentieth century the Privy Counsellors, 1st and 2nd classes' levée coatee embroidery was extended to include the centre back waist as well as the collar, cuffs and pocket flaps.
For Privy Counsellors, on both levée and full dress coatees the embroidery had a purl edging; the cocked hat was similar to that of the 1st class, but with additional hangers on the gold tassels.
In 1908, white gloves were still mentioned in the regulations, while in 1912 they were not, and the 1937 regulation said that they are not worn.
Edward VII ordered Privy Counsellors to wear civil uniform at
Privy Councilmeetings, but this requirement has lapsed. In lieu of Civil Uniform or Court Dress, alternative dress may be worn by gentlemen (except for Household, Diplomatics and Consular Services) on all occasions when uniform or court dress is prescribed.
Foreign Service variants
The King's or Queen's Foreign Service Messengers were entitled to 5th class court uniform, upgraded to 4th class in 1929. A distinctive greyhound badge is also worn.
Members of the "Diplomatic Service" also wore court uniforms:
Ambassadors's coat is that of 1st class, with additional embroidery on sleeves and seams. High Commissionersfor Dominionsin London wore 1st class uniform. The High Commissioner for Southern Rhodesia, and Agent-Generals for Australian states wore 2nd class uniform.
Members of the "Consular Service" wore full dress and levée dress ("half dress" in 1898) uniforms with some modifications. The coatee for both was in blue cloth, with a Prussian collar, single-breasted buttoning with nine frosted gilt buttons of royal arms, two more buttons on back waist, two more on coat tails. Consuls-General and Consuls had embroidered gold and silver lace on collar, cuffs, pocket flaps, and back. Consuls-General had 2½", Consuls 2". Vice-Consuls 1½" on cuffs, and front half of collar only. All wore white breeches and stockings, patent leather court shoes with gilt buckles for full dress, or trousers with "silver" lace stripes and patent leather military boots for levée dress. Consuls' stripes were 2¼", others' were 1¾". These were worn with black beaver cocked hats, black cockade, "silver" bullion loops, and gold tassels. For Consuls-General there were treble loops and a border of black ostrich feathers, for Consuls and Vice-Consuls double or single loops respectively, with no feathers. A blue greatcoat or cloak, blue detachable cape was for outdoors use. The sword accessories were the same as for standard court uniform.
Other types of court uniforms
The Court Uniforms vary depending upon the office - all the details being specified in "Dress worn at Court" (1937 edition) - though there have been considerable departures from this, due almost entirely to the exigencies of economy.
Clerk of the Parliamentswears civil uniform at Court functions.
Clerks from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries wore gowns, bands, and short wigs. Now court dress suit, waistcoat, and trousers. The Clerk of the House wears breeches at the
State Opening of Parliament. At court functions clerks wore civil uniform.
Attendants or messengers in the
House of Lordssince the nineteenth century have worn a black evening dress suit, black waistcoat, and a silver neck badge.
In the House of Commons, the Speaker of the House of Commons wears black silk gown, over a black cloth court suit of legal pattern, white cambric necktie or bands, full-bottomed wig, and three-cornered hat. For mourning he wears a black paramatta gown, white weepers on coat cuffs, broad-hemmed frill and ruffles instead of lace, lawn bands, and black buckles on shoes and knees replacing the bright metal ones.
On state occasions, as when attending on Her Majesty together with the House of Commons, such as for the
State Opening of Parliament, or the presentation of an Address, he wears a state robe of black satin damask with gold lace guarding, over a black velvet court suit, lace edged cravat (jabot), lace ruffles or cuffs, full-bottomed wig, beaver three-cornered hat, wig, white gloves.
For courts or drawing rooms in 1898, he wore full dress black court suit, black damask silk state robe trimmed with gold, gilt buckles, lace bands and ruffles, beaver hat, and full-bottomed wig. At levées a black velvet court suit, steel or silver buckles, sword etc was worn.
By 1908, for courts, levées etc he was to wear the "old style" velvet court suit, but not the state robe for courts, as previously, or civil uniform, 1st Class. In 1937, this was changed to Privy Counsellor's Uniform, if entitled. The state robe was confined to occasions when attending upon the Sovereign within the House of Commons.
The Speaker-Elect wears the black legal cloth court dress of a QC with knee breeches and long black stockings instead of trousers, buckled shoes, and a short wig, but no gown.
The Speaker's Secretary wore civil uniform or black cloth court suit of legal pattern, with lace frill and ruffles, steel buckles on breeches and shoes, cocked hat, sword.
The Clerk of the House of Commons, Clerk Assistant, and certain other House officers wore civil uniform.
Serjeants at Arms, their Deputy and Assistants, in the House of Commons wore from the nineteenth century military uniform or a cloth court suit of legal pattern, and sword. These were worn in the House, at courts, levées, and evening state parties. On special occasions the Sejeants wore lace and a collar of SS also, with cloth court dress. Their deputies and assistants wore only the lace. In mourning with the black cloth suit was worn a black sword with black mountings, black knee and shoe buckles, also a broad-hemmed frill and ruffles. With uniform only an arm band was worn.
Doorkeepers and messengers in the House of Commons wear evening dress, black waistcoat, and a silver badge suspended from the neck.
Indian members of the
Indian Civil Servicewere entitled to civil uniform, with a turban or pagre replacing the cocked hat, or the national dress which they were accustomed to wear on ceremonial occasions. They could also wear a blue coat buttoning from the neck to below the waist, worn with white trousers or pyjamas and the native head-dress.
Full dress was worn only at courts and state balls, and on important state occasions at home when ordered. Levée dress was worn at levées, state occasions abroad, naval courts, official visits by and to naval commanders.
With white tropical uniform, sword carried in a white frog so that the hilt projects through a vertical slit on the left side of the coat, which thus conceals the upper part of the scabbard, and should be attached to a white belt worn under the coat. This is only worn on ceremonial occasions.
Indian civil undress uniform (morning)Sword- mameluke pattern, brass scabbard. Sword knot- round gold cord strap with bullion tassel.Sword belt- 1½" wide, lining of red morocco leather, sling Russia leather 1" wide on red morocco leather, the whole covered with a gold oakleaf lace.Also worn with hot weather uniform.
Indian Political Department undress uniformSword- mameluke pattern, brass scabbard. Sword belt- gold oakleaf lace 1½" wide, with slings 1" wide on white morocco leather.Waistplate- round gilt clasp. Royal Coat of Arms on centre piece, universal ends.
Indian Political Department service dress uniformSword- regulation cavalry pattern, wooden scabbard, covered with brown leather.Sword belt- brown leather, Sam Browne pattern.
"Dress Worn at Court" (various editions)
* [http://www.cam.ac.uk/societies/cuhags/books/titman37.htm CUH&GS: Dress and Insignia Worn at Court, 1937] , accessed 4 February 2006. Citing Titman, G.A. (1937): "Dress and Insignia Worn at His Majesty's Court". Harrison and Sons Limited.
* [http://www.hrp.org.uk/webcode/content.asp?ID=405 Royal Ceremonial Dress Collection at Kensington Palace] , accessed 21 July 2006.
* [http://www.mfa.gov.yu/History/du_e.html Diplomatic-consular suits of the Kingdoms of Serbia, Montenegro and Yugoslavia]
* [http://lafayette.150m.com/thumbscourt.html Lafayette Negative Archive (photographs of British court dress 1880s-1930s)]
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