- Premature ejaculation
Name = Premature ejaculation
ICD10 = ICD10|F|52|4|f|50
ICD9 = ICD9|302.75
MedlinePlus = 001524
eMedicineSubj = med
eMedicineTopic = 643
Premature ejaculation (PE), also known as rapid ejaculation, rapid climax, premature climax or early ejaculation, is the most common sexual problem in men, affecting 25%-40% of men. It is characterized by a lack of voluntary control over
ejaculation. Masters and Johnsonstated that a man suffers from premature ejaculationif he ejaculates before his sex partner achieves orgasmin more than fifty percent of their sexual encounters. Other sex researchershave defined premature ejaculation as occurring if the man ejaculates within two minutes of penetration; however, a survey by Alfred Kinseyin the 1950s demonstrated that three quarters of men ejaculate within two minutes of penetration in over half of their sexual encounters.Fact|date=September 2008 Today, most sex therapists understand premature ejaculation as occurring when a lack of ejaculatory control interferes with sexual or emotional well-being in one or both partners. Fact|date=September 2008
The term "premature ejaculation" is not well defined in medical circles and is sometimes considered to be more of a marketing tool than a medical condition. By widely advertising PE/ED as a problem, an industry has been created to solve what was in the past might not have been a great concern. The psychological effects of PE and ED have also been considered similar to the effects on young women of the thin model paradigm.Fact|date=September 2008
Most men experience premature ejaculation at least once in their lives. Often adolescents and young men experience premature ejaculation during their first sexual encounters, but eventually learn ejaculatory control. Because there is great variability in both how long it takes men to ejaculate and how long both partners want sex to last, researchers have begun to form a quantitative definition of premature ejaculation. Current evidence supports an average intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of six and a half minutes in 18-30 year olds. [cite web |url=http://www.jr2.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/band137/b137-4.html |title=Ejaculation delay: what's normal? [July 2005; 137-4] |accessdate=2007-10-21 |format= |work=] [cite journal |author=Waldinger MD, Quinn P, Dilleen M, Mundayat R, Schweitzer DH, Boolell M |title=A multinational population survey of intravaginal ejaculation latency time |journal=The journal of sexual medicine |volume=2 |issue=4 |pages=492–7 |year=2005 |pmid=16422843 |doi=10.1111/j.1743-6109.2005.00070.x] If the disorder is defined as an IELT percentile below 2.5, then premature ejaculation could be suggested by an IELT of less than about one and a half minutes. [cite journal |author=Waldinger MD, Zwinderman AH, Olivier B, Schweitzer DH |title=Proposal for a definition of lifelong premature ejaculation based on epidemiological stopwatch data |journal=The journal of sexual medicine |volume=2 |issue=4 |pages=498–507 |year=2005 |pmid=16422844 |doi=10.1111/j.1743-6109.2005.00069.x] Nevertheless, it is well accepted that men with IELTs below 1.5 minutes could be "happy" with their performance and do not report a lack of control and therefore do not suffer from PE. On the other hand, a man with 2 minutes IELT could present with perception of poor control over his ejaculation, distressed about his condition, has interpersonal difficulties and therefore be diagnosed with PE.
Possible psychological and environmental factors
Psychological factors commonly contribute to premature ejaculation. While men sometimes underestimate the relationship between sexual performance and emotional well-beingWho|date=March 2008, premature ejaculation can be caused by temporary depression, stress over financial matters, unrealistic expectations about performance, a history of sexual repression, or an overall lack of confidence. Interpersonal dynamics strongly contribute to sexual function, and premature ejaculation can be caused by a lack of communication between partners, hurt feelings, or unresolved conflicts that interfere with the ability to achieve
emotional intimacy. Neurological premature ejaculation can also lead to other forms of sexual dysfunction, or intensify the existing problem, by creating performance anxiety. In a less pathological context, premature ejaculation could also be simply caused by extreme arousal.
Recent research has also investigated the role of factors involving the female partner. One study of young married couples (Tullberg, 1999) reported that the husband's IELT seems to be affected by the phases of the wife's
menstrual cycle, the IELT tending to be shortest during the fertile phase. Other studies suggest that young men with older female partners reach the "ejaculatory threshold" sooner, on average, than those whose partners are their own age or younger Fact|date=November 2007.
Possible physical factors
cience of mechanism of ejaculation
The physical process of ejaculation requires two sequential actions: emission and expulsion. The emission phase is the first phase. It involves deposition of seminal fluid from the ampullary
vas deferens, seminal vesicles and prostate glandinto posterior urethra. [cite journal |author=Böhlen D, Hugonnet CL, Mills RD, Weise ES, Schmid HP |title=Five meters of H(2)O: the pressure at the urinary bladder neck during human ejaculation |journal=Prostate |volume=44 |issue=4 |pages=339–41 |year=2000 |pmid=10951500|doi=10.1002/1097-0045(20000901)44:4<339::AID-PROS12>3.0.CO;2-Z] The second phase is the expulsion phase. It involves closure of bladder neck, followed by the rhythmic contractions of the urethraby pelvic-perineal and bulbospongiosus muscle, and intermittent relaxation of external sphincter urethrae. [cite journal |author=Master VA, Turek PJ |title=Ejaculatory physiology and dysfunction |journal=Urol. Clin. North Am. |volume=28 |issue=2 |pages=363–75, x |year=2001 |pmid=11402588|doi=10.1016/S0094-0143(05)70145-2]
It is believed that the
neurotransmitter serotonin(5HT) plays a central role in modulating ejaculation. Several animal studies have demonstrated its inhibitory effect on ejaculation. Therefore, it is perceived that low level of serotonin in the synaptic cleft in these specific areas in the brain could cause premature ejaculation. This theory is further supported by the proven effectiveness of SSRIs, which increase serotonin level in the synapse, in treating PE.
Sympathetic motor neurons control the emission phase of
ejaculationreflex and expulsion phase is executed by somatic and autonomic motor neurons. These motor neurons are located in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral spinal cordand are activated in a coordinated manner when sufficient sensory input to reach the ejaculatory threshold has entered the central nervous system. [cite journal |author=deGroat WC, Booth AM |title=Physiology of male sexual function |journal=Ann. Intern. Med. |volume=92 |issue=2 Pt 2 |pages=329–31 |year=1980 |pmid=7356224 |doi=] [cite journal |author=Truitt WA, Coolen LM |title=Identification of a potential ejaculation generator in the spinal cord |journal=Science |volume=297 |issue=5586 |pages=1566–9 |year=2002 |pmid=12202834 |doi=10.1126/science.1073885]
Several areas in the brain, and especially the nucleus paragigantocellularis, have been identified to be involved in ejaculatory control. [cite journal |author=Coolen LM, Olivier B, Peters HJ, Veening JG |title=Demonstration of ejaculation-induced neural activity in the male rat brain using 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT |journal=Physiol. Behav. |volume=62 |issue=4 |pages=881–91 |year=1997 |pmid=9284512 |doi=10.1016/S0031-9384(97)00258-8] Scientists have long suspected a genetic link to certain forms of premature ejaculation. In one study, ninety-one percent of men who suffered from lifelong premature ejaculation also had a first-relative with lifelong premature ejaculation. Other researchers have noted that men who suffer from premature ejaculation have a faster neurological response in the pelvic muscles. Simple exercises commonly suggested by sex therapists can significantly improve ejaculatory control for men with premature ejaculation caused by neurological factorsFact|date=January 2007. Often, these men may benefit from anti-
anxietymedication or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs), such as sertralineor paroxetine, as these slow down ejaculation times [http://www.healthfinder.gov/newsletters/relation092506.asp] . Some men prefer using anaesthetic creams, however, these creams may also deaden sensations in the man's partner, and are not generally recommended by sex therapists.
Diagnostic criteria for Premature Ejaculation DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association)
A. Persistent or recurrent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on, or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it. The clinician must take into account factors that affect duration of the excitement phase, such as age, novelty of the sexual partner or situation, and recent
frequency of sexual activity.
B. The disturbance causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty.
C. The premature ejaculation is not due exclusively to the direct effects of a substance (e.g., withdrawal from opioids).
Premature ejaculation should be distinguished from erectile dysfunction related to the development of a general medical condition. Some individuals with erectile dysfunction may omit their usual strategies for delaying orgasm. Others require prolonged noncoital stimulation to develop a degree of erection sufficient for intromission. In such individuals, sexual arousal may be so high that ejaculation occurs immediately. Occasional problems with premature ejaculation that are not persistent or recurrent or are not accompanied by marked distress or interpersonal difficulty do not qualify for the diagnosis of premature ejaculation. The clinician should also take into account the individual's age, overall sexual experience, recent sexual activity, and the novelty of the partner. When problems with premature ejaculation are due exclusively to substance use (e.g., opioid withdrawal), a substance-induced sexual dysfunction can be diagnosed.
Ejaculation disorder types
* Premature ejaculation -Ejaculation occurs very early
* Retarded ejaculation -Ejaculation takes a long time
* Retrograde ejaculation -Semen flows from the prostate gland into the bladder rather than spurting out of the penis
* Inhibited orgasm in malescite web | Adam Keller Ashton, M.D. Carolyn M. Young, M.D. Joseph LoPiccolo, Ph.D. | title =Premature Ejaculation | publisher=Armenian Medical Network | work =Premature Ejaculation and Male Orgasmic Disorder | url=http://www.health.am/sex/premature-ejaculation/ | year = 2006 | accessdate=2007-09-19]
howto|sectionIn mundane cases, treatments are focused on gradually training and improving mental habituation to sex and physical development of stimulation control. In clinical cases, various medications are being tested to help slow down the speed of the arousal response.
Masters and Johnson recommended a start and stop technique to increase the time till ejaculation. This requires a great deal of couple cooperation and communication and may be difficult for some.
PE is usually a performance anxiety disorder. Doctors as well as information available online can help stop or lessen the effects of PE.
Serotonergic medications, such as SSRIs can delay ejaculation. [Safarinejad, M. R., & Hosseini, S. Y. (2006). Pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation. "Current Drug Therapy, 1," 37-46.] [SadeghiNejad, H., & Watson, R. (2008). Premature ejaculation: Current medical treatment and new directions. "Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5," 1037-1050.] SSRIs are commonly used as anti-depressants. Examples include Prozac, Zoloft, Celexa, Effexor, and Lexapro. Clinical trials indicate that Paroxetine gives the largest increase in intravaginal ejaculation latency time. [cite journal |author=Bandolier |title=Premature ejaculation treatments reviewed |pages=128-3 |year=2004 |url=http://www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/band128/b128-3.html]
William Francis Ganong, cited dietary
5-HTPas an alternative source to raising serotonin levels. Many supplements are available that contain 5-HTP.
Medical grade topical anesthetics are a common ingredient in many over-the-counter products such as condoms and non-aerosol sprays. [cite web |url=http://www.pe-tips.com/climax-control-condoms/ |title=Climax Control Condoms |accessdate=2008-09-30 |format= |work=] [cite web |url=http://www.pe-tips.com/how-to-stop-premature-ejaculation-with-sprays-and-creams/ |title=How To Stop Premature Ejaculation With Sprays And Creams |accessdate=2008-09-30 |format= |work=]
External latex rigid sheathes fastened to the body have been developed that cover all part of the penis during penetration so that the penis is protected from all the stimulation of the vagina. These help to gain control and to provide satisfaction to the partner.
Masters and Johnsonrecommended the use of the Lateral coital positionto help alleviate premature ejaculation.
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