- Hardcore pornography
Hardcore pornography is a form of
pornographythat features explicit sexual acts. The term was coined in the second half of the 20th century to distinguish it from softcorepornography. It usually takes the form of photographs, often in magazines, or films but it may also appear as a cartoon. Since the 1990s it has been distributed widely over the Internet.
Hardcore pornography was widely prohibited in many countries until the second half of the 20th century when many of the world's liberal democracies, experiencing a change in
sexual norms, began to allow limited access. Supply is usually regulated by a combination of a classification system and regulation of points of sale, although today hardcore pornography can be easily downloaded from many Internet sites with little regulation. Public display and advertisingis often prohibited. Supply to minors is usually prohibited.
Since 1969, most of the world's liberal democracies have taken steps to legalize pornography.or they increasingly fail to enforce legislation to prohibit it resulting in "
de facto" legalization. There is often vigorous opposition to legalization - see anti-pornography movement. The years that hardcore pornography was legalized are roughly as follows:
West Germanyin 1973. ( East Germany, which never legalized hardcore pornography, was unified with West Germany in 1990.)
United Kingdomin 2000
In the U.S., legal interpretations of pornography in relation to the constitutional right to free speech differ from state to state and from city to city. General legalization began in 1971, with substantial localized variance as to allowed form and content, including variance over time as some areas increased or decreased restrictions.
A recent study conducted in Denmark written by Martin Hald and Neil Malamuth found that men and women generally believe that hardcore pornography has a positive influence on their lives. The respondents credited porn with improving their sex lives, their sexual knowledge and attitudes toward the opposite sex, and even their general quality of life. Other studies have come to strikingly different conclusions than the Denmark study regarding porn's impact on individuals and families. [http://www.xbiz.com/news/legal/92115]
The Independent" reported in 2006 that Nielsen NetRatings found that more than nine million British male adults used Internet porn services. [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/sexcom-we-are-a-nation-addicted-to-porn-and-nearly-11-million-of-us-got-our-fix-on-the-net-last-year-480091.html Sex.com: We are a nation addicted to porn. And nearly 11 million of us got our fix on the net last year] , Sophie Goodchild and Severin Carrell, " The Independent", May 28, 2006; accessed August 4, 2008] The study also reported a one-third rise in the number of women visiting X-rated sites, from 1.05 million to 1.38 million. A 2003 study found that one third of all British internet users accessed hardcore porn. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/nov/08/gender.weekend7 Men and porn] , Edward Marriott, " The Guardian", November 8, 2003]
", July 21, 2008; accessed August 4, 2008]
Hardcore porn remains controversial in the United States, and is used as a campaign issue for politicians.
Mitt Romneydecried the "cesspool" of pornography, but came under fire from social conservatives, including Tony Perkins, because he sat on the board of Marriott, whose hotels profit from porn movies. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/05/AR2007070501305.html Romney Criticized for Hotel Pornography] , Glen Johnson, " The Washington Post", July 5, 2007; accessed August 1, 2008] Pay-per-viewpornography generates a lot of revenues for hotels. Anti-porn activist John Harmer, who served as California's lieutenant governor under Ronald Reagan, estimated up to $500 million is generated industrywide.
In particular, organizations with ties to the
Christian rightmovement have concerned themselves with porn issues. [http://www.christianpost.com/article/20080131/hard-core-pornography-isn-t-free-speech.htm Hardcore pornography isn't free speech] , Matt Barber, " The Christian Post", January 31, 2008; accessed August 4, 2008.]
List of pornography laws by country
*O'Toole, L. (1998), Pornocopia: Porn, Sex, Technology and Desire, London, Serpent's Tail. ISBN 1-85242-395-1
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