- Work (thermodynamics)
In

thermodynamics ,**work**is the quantity ofenergy transferred from one system to another without an accompanying transfer ofentropy . It is a generalization of the concept ofmechanical work in mechanics. In the SI system of measurement, work is measured injoule s (symbol: J). The rate at which work is performed is power.**History****1824**Work, i.e. "weight "lifted" through a height", was originally defined in 1824 by Sadi Carnot in his famous paper "Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire". Specifically, according to Carnot:

**1845**In 1845, the English physicist

James Joule wrote a paper "On the mechanical equivalent of heat" for the British Association meeting inCambridge [*Joule, J.P. (1845) [*] . In this work, he reported his best-known experiment, in which the work released through the action of a "weight "falling" through a height" was used to turn a paddle-wheel in an insulated barrel of water.*http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Chem-History/Joule-Heat-1845.html "On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat"*] , "Brit. Assoc. Rep., trans. Chemical Sect", p.31, which was read before the British Association at Cambridge, JuneIn this experiment, the friction and agitation of the paddle-wheel on the body of water caused

heat to be generated which, in turn, increased thetemperature of water. Both the temperature change ∆T of the water and the height of the fall ∆h of the weight mg were recorded. Using these values, Joule was able to determine themechanical equivalent of heat . Joule estimated a mechanical equivalent of heat to be 819 ft•lbf/Btu (4.41 J/cal). The modern day definitions of heat, work, temperature, andenergy all have connection to this experiment.**Overview**According to the "

First Law of Thermodynamics ", it is useful to separate changes to the internal energy of a thermodynamic system into two sorts of energy transfers.**Work**refers to forms of energy transfer which can be accounted for in terms of changes in the "macroscopic" physical variables of the system, for example energy which goes into expanding the volume of a system against an external pressure, by driving a piston-head out of a cylinder against an external force. This is in contrast toenergy, which is carried into or out of the system in the form of transfers in the "microscopic" thermal motions of particles.heat The concept of thermodynamic work is slightly more general than that of mechanical work because it includes other types of energy transfers as well. The electrical work required to move a charge against an external electrical field can be measured, as can the work required to move heat against a temperature gradient. An extremely important fact to understand is that thermodynamic work need not have any mechanical component to be considered such.

**Mathematical definition**According to the First Law of Thermodynamics, any net increase in the internal energy "U" of a thermodynamic system must be fully accounted for, in terms of heat "δQ" entering the system minus work "δW" done "by" the system:

:$dU\; =\; delta\; Q\; -\; delta\; W;$

The letter "d" indicates that internal energy "U" is a property of the state of the system, so changes in the internal energy are

exact differential s; they depend only on the original state and the final state, and not upon the path taken. In contrast, the Greek delta's ("δ"‘s) in this equation reflect the fact that the heat transfer and the work transfer are "not" properties of the final state of the system. Given only the initial state and the final state of the system, one can only say what the total change in internal energy was, not how much of the energy went out as heat, and how much as work. This can be summarized by saying that heat and work are notstate function s of the system.**Pressure-volume work**Chemical thermodynamics studies "PV work", which occurs when the volume of a fluid changes. PV work is represented by the followingdifferential equation ::$dW\; =\; -P\; dV\; ,$

where:

* "W" = work done on the system

* "P" = external pressure

* "V" = volume:$W=-int\_\{V\_i\}^\{V\_f\}\; P,dV$

Like all work functions, PV work is path-dependent. This means that the differential $dW$ is an

inexact differential ; to be more rigorous, it should be written đW (with a line through the d).In other words, from a mathematical point of view, đW is not an exact

one-form . The line-through is merely a flag to warn us there is actually no function (0-form ) $W$ which is thepotential of đW. If there were, indeed, this function $W$, we should be able to just useStokes Theorem to evaluate this putative function, the potential of đW, at theboundary of the path, that is, the initial and final points, and therefore the work would be a state function. This impossibility is consistent with the fact that it does not make sense to refer to "the work on a point" in the PV diagram; work presupposes a path.PV work is often measured in the (non-SI) units of litre-atmospheres, where 1 L·atm = 101.3 J.The mathematical equation for the thermodynamical substance depends on the weight,mass and temperature of the thermodynamical substance.

**Free energy and exergy**The amount of useful work which "can" be extracted from a thermodynamic system is discussed in the article "

Second Law of Thermodynamics ". Under many practical situations this can be represented by the thermodynamic Availability orExergy function. Two important cases are: in thermodynamic systems where the temperature and volume are held constant, the measure of "useful" work attainable is theHelmholtz free energy function; and in systems where the temperature and pressure are held constant, the measure of "useful" work attainable is to theGibbs free energy .**See also***

Mechanical work

*Thermodynamics

*Chemistry

*Chemical reactions **References**

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