- Kozhikode district
Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
latd = 11.25
population_as_of = 2001
population_total = 2878498
Kozhikode District is a district of
Keralastate, situated on the southwest coast of India. The city of Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the district headquarters. This is the third-most advanced district in Kerala. It is 38.25% urbanised. [http://www.censusindiamaps.net/page/India_WhizMap/IndiaMap.htm]
The district is bounded by the districts of Kannur to the north,
Wayanadto the east, and Malappuram to the south, and by the Arabian Seain the west. It is situated between latitudes 11° 08'N and11° 50'N and longitudes 75° 30'E and 76° 8'E.
The district is divided into three
taluks, Vadakara, Koyilandy, and Kozhikode.
Present-day Kozhikode District was among territories ceded to the
British East India Companyby Tipu Sultanof Mysore in 1792, at the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Mysore War. The newly-acquired British possessions on the Malabar Coastwere organized into Malabar District, which included the present-day districts of Kannur, Kozhikode, Malappuram, and Palakkad, and Wayanad. Calicut served as the administrative headquarters of the district. Malabar District was part of the Madras Presidency, a province of British India.
After India's Independence in 1947, Madras Presidency became
Madras State, which was divided along linguistic lines by the 'State Names Reorganisation Act' in 1956. On 1 November 1956, Malabar District was combined with the erstwhile state of Travancore-Cochinand Kasaragod Districtto form the state of Kerala.
Malabar District was considered too large for effective administration, so it was divided into the districts of Kozhikode, Kannur, and Palakkad on
1 January 1957. The district had five taluks, Vadakara, Koyilandy, Kozhikode, Ernad, and Tirur. On 16 June 1969, Ernad and Tirur Taluks became part of newly-created Malappuram District. South Wayanad, which forms the southern portion of present-day Wayanad District, was added to Kozhikode for a time, but in 1980 became part of newly-created Wayanad District.
Calicut is the anglicized form of ‘Kalikut’, Arabic for the
Malayalamname Kozhikode. It is also called the Cock Fort. According to the historian K.V. Krishnan Iyer, the term means "koyil" (palace) "kodu" (fortified).
The ports of the
Malabar Coasthave been participated in the Indian Ocean trade in spices, silk, and other goods for over two millennia. Kozhikode emerged as the centre of an independent kingdom in the 14th century, whose ruler was known as the Zamorin.
thumb|left|200px|Admiral Zheng He's navigation chart fromHormuz to Calicut, 1430
During the Yong Le era of the
Ming Dynastyof China, Admiral Zheng Heand his treasure fleet visited Kozhikode. Their visits were documented by on-board Arab language translators Ma Huan, Fei Xin and Gong Zheng. Each one of them published a book documented their visits to various countries, including Calicut. Ma Huan’s book "Ying yai Sheng lan" (translated into English as "The Overall Survey of the Ocean Shores") contains the following observations of Kozhikode:
*Calicut was a large kingdom on the West Ocean, bordering
Coimbatorekingdom to the east, Kochi to the south, and Honavarto the north.
*The king of Calicut (Vana Vikraman) was a Brahmin and a Buddhist. His chiefs were Muslims.
*The throne pass to the king's sister's son.
*In the fifth year of Yong Le
1407, the emperor of Ming dynasty ordered Admiral Zheng He to deliver an imperial honor to King of Calicut, with grant of silver seal, and promoted the chiefs with titles and awards of hats and girdles of different grades.
*Admiral Zheng He erected a pavilion with ceremonial stone tablet in Calicut to celebrate this event.
*The king minted fanam coins of 60% gold and also silver coins as currency.
*The people of Calicut were honest and trustworthy.
*The people of Calicut made
silkout of silkworm, and dyed silk into different colors.
*Main produce in Calicut were
turnips, onions, ginger, eggplants in four seasons; also red and white rice, but no wheat.
*The king of Calicut ordered craftsmen to draw fifty ounces of gold into hair-like fine threads, and weaved them into ribbon to make a gold girdle embedded with pearls and precious stones of all sort of colors, and sent envoy Naina (Narayana) to present the gold girdle to the Ming emperor as tribute.
*According to Ming dynasty Imperial Guard Recruitment Record, Nanking area town guard chief Shaban was a native of Calicut. He was recruited to join Zheng He’s expedition, and was promoted on his return. Another officer Shasozu from Nanking military division was also a native from Calicut, who joined Zheng He’s expedition and too was promoted.
Admiral Zheng He later re-visited Calicut several times. On April of
1433during his 6th and last expedition, he died in Calicut. The ceremonial stone tablet erected by Zheng He stood at least another two hundred years in Calicut; Jesuit Godinho de Eredia wrote that he saw this tablet in 1613. Vasco da Gamalanded at Kappad(18 kilometers north of Kozhikode) in May 1498, as the leader of a trade mission from Portugaland was received by the Zamorinhimself. During the 16th century the Portuguese set up trading posts to the north in Kannurand to the south in Kochi, but the Zamorin resisted the establishment of a permanent Portuguese presence in the city, although in 1509the kingdom was forced to accept a Portuguese trading post in Chaliyar. The Zamorins later allied with Portuguese's rivals the Dutch, and by the mid-17th century the Dutch had captured the Malabar Coast spice trade from the Portuguese. In the 1766 Hyder Aliof Mysore captured Kozhikode and much of northern Malabar Coast, and came into conflict with the British based in Madras, which resulted in four Anglo-Mysore Wars.
The district has a generally humid climate with a very hot season extending from March to May. The most important rainy season is during the South West
Monsoon, which sets in the first week of June and extends up to September. The North East Monsoon extends from the second half of October through November. The average annual rainfall is 3266 mm. The best weather is found in towards the end of the year, in December and January — the skies are clear, and the air is crisp. The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 ºC in March 1975. The lowest was 14 ºC recorded on 26 December 1975.
The centuries of trade across the
Indian Oceangave Kozhikode a cosmopolitan population. Hindus constitute the majority of the population, and next come the Muslimand the Christiancommunities respectively. The Muslims of Kozhikode District are known as Mappilas. A great majority of them are Sunnis following the ShafiSchool of thought. Christianity is believed to have been introduced in Kerala in 52CE, and the Christian population expanded with the presence of the Portuguese, Dutch, and British starting in the 16th century.
The Legislative constituencies in Kozhikode district after Delimitation
Kozhikode occupies a prominent place in the history of Malayalam Journalism. The origin of journalism in this district can be traced back to
1880. The "Kerala Pathrika" is likely to be the earliest newspaper published from Kozhikode. "Keralam", "Kerala Sanchari" and "Bharath Vilasam" are among the Other newspapers published from Kozhikode before 1893. The two major Malayalam newspapers, the Malayala Manoramaand the Mathrubhumibring out Kozhikode editions. One of the major national dailies in English, The New Indian Expressalso has its edition in the city. Another national daily, The Hinduhas its office in the city.
The Kozhikode station of
All India Radiowas commissioned on 14 May 1950and it has two transmitters, Kozhikode A of 10 kilowatt power and Kozhikode B (Vividh Bharathi) of 1 kilowatt power. A television transmitter has been functioning in Kozhikode from 3 July 1984, relaying programmes from Delhiand Thiruvananthapuram Doordarshan. Cable and satellite television are also available throughout the district.
Places of interest
The temples and mosques of this district contain sculptures and inscriptions which are of considerable interest to the students of art. Kozhikode city itself has many temples, the most important of which are the Tali Temple, Thiruvannur Temple, Azhakodi Temple, [http://www.sreevalayanaddevi.org Sree Valayanad Temple] , Varakkal Temple, Bilathikulam Temple, Bhairagi Madam Temple, and the
Lokanarkavu Templenear Vadakara.
There is an art gallery and
Krishna MenonMuseum located at East Hill in Kozhikode. Lalitha Kala Academy also has an art gallery adjacent to the Kozhikode town hall. There is a planetarium, situated in the heart of the city near Jaffer Khan Colony. Kozhikode Beach and Mananchira Square are other popular gathering spots.
Thusharagiri, a very beautiful Waterfall is about 55 km from Calicut Railway Station. Thusharagiri is served by a KTDC (Kerala Tourism Development Corporation) hotel.
Culture & Cuisine
In the field of Malayalam Language and literature Kozhikode has made most significant contributions. The district is famous for folk songs or ballads known as
Vadakkan Pattukal. The most popular songs among them are those which celebrate the exploits of Thacholi Othenan.One of the favourite past times of the Muslims of the district is the singing of the Mappilapattu and Oppana. The songs are composed in a composite language of Arabicand Malayalam. The intellectual debate for vedic scholars to win the position of Pattathanam takes place at Thali temple during the month of Thulam. Kozhikode also has strong associations with ghazals and football. The football game has a huge fan following here, and the Football World Cup is followed with even greater enthusiasm than the unofficial national sport of India — the Cricket. Local clubs even pick favourites among competing nations, and vociferously support their teams.
The city also has a strong mercantile streak to it, with the major vein of commerce being the "Mithai Theruvu", a long street crammed with shops that sell everything from sarees to cosmetics, and house hotels to sweetmeat shops. The name Mithai Theruvu or "SM Street" comes from the sweet "Kozhikode Halwa" which was often called as the Sweetmeat by European traders. The multi cultural mix of Kozhikode ensures that
Onam, Christmas, and Id-ul-Fitr (the festivals of the Hindus, Christians, and Muslims) are celebrated with equal pomp.
Kozhikode also offers fare for every palate. Vegetarian fare includes the "
sadya" (the full-fledged feast with rice, sambhar, papadum, and seven different curries). However, the non-vegetarian food offered in the city is a unique mix of Muslim and Christian preparations. Some popular dishes include the Biriyani, Ghee Rice with meat curry, a whole host of sea-food preparations ( prawns, mussels, mackerel, sea-fish) and paper thin " Pathiris" to provide accompaniment to spicy gravy. Another well known Kozhikode speciality are [banana chips] make natuaral oil] , which are made crisp and wafer thin, and the Kozhikode Halwa.
Calicut Medical College [http://www.calicutmedicalcollege.ac.in] : A medical institution. The Institution recently made headlines by creating the [http://www.calicutmedicaljournal.org Calicut Medical Journal] , the premier Open Access Medical Journal in India.
National Institute of Technology: An engineering institution. It was formerly known as Regional Engineering College (REC) and was affiliated to University of Calicut. It is now a deemed university.
Indian Institutes of Management: The latest in the IIM series, this institution was ranked in the top 10 B-schools in India. Zamorins Guruvayurappan College: One of the oldest colleges in the country, founded by Zamorinsof Kozhikode. St. Joseph's College, Devagiri: An arts and science college, accredited by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council(NAAC) with a grade A. Farook College, Calicut: The only College in Calicut University to be recognised as a Center of Excellence by the UGC and accredited at 5 star level by NAAC. Malabar Christian College: A co-ed institution. It is affiliated to University of Calicut and accredited by National Assessment and Accreditation Council(NAAC), and offers a variety of degree and post graduate courses in various streams. Government Engineering College Kozhikode: It is one among the engineering institutions under the Department of Technical Education, Kerala. GEC has been rated consistently among the top technical institutes in Kerala. Jamia Markazu Ssaquafathi Ssunniyya: A Muslim charitable religious institution. [http://www.markazonline.com Web Site]
Government College, Madappally, Vatakara.
St. Joseph's Boys' Higher Secondary School, Calicut: St.Joseph's Boys' Higher Secondary School, Calicut is one of the oldest educational institutions in India. The School run by the Society of Jesus was started way back in 1793.
M.E.S Raja residential school-Day scholars wing,Pavangad is a muslim group owned institution.it has been one of the good institutions in Calicut & one of the best in M.E.S institute chain.
* [http://www.kozhikode.nic.in Kozhikode District official website]
* [http://www.keraladays.com/Kozhikkode.htm Kozhikode District information pages]
* [http://www.wikitravel.org/en/Kozhikode Kozhikode at Wikitravel]
* [http://www.manoramaonline.com/advt/gimpsesofkerala/Kozhikode.htm Glimpses of Kozhikode]
* [http://www.calicutmedicaljournal.org Calicut Medical Journal]
* [http://www.calicutmedicalcollege.ac.in Calicut Medical College]
* [http://www.mccal.com Calicut Medical College Network]
* [http://www.nitc.ac.in National Institute of Technology, Kozhikode]
* [http://www.ihrdkerala.org/cascalicut.html College of Applied Science]
* [http://www.iimk.ac.in IIM Kozhikode]
* [http://www.mcccalicut.org/ Malabar Christian College, Kozhikode]
* [http://www.zgcollege.org Zamorin's Guruvayurappan College, Kozhikode]
* [http://www.markazonline.com Sunni Markaz Kozhikode]
* [http://www.devagiricollege.org St. Joseph's College, Devagiri]
* [http://www.geckkd.ac.in Government Engineering College, Kozhikode]
* [http://www.stjosephsboysschool.org St. Joseph's Boys' Higher Secondary School, Kozhikode]
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