- Lizard Union (medieval)
The Lizard Union or Lizard League ( _de. Eidechsenbund; _pl. Związek Jaszczurczy) was an
organizationof Prussian nobles and knights established in Culmerland (Chełmno Land) in 1397. Its declared goal was to combat lawlessness, although it discreetly sought the transfer of Culmerland from the Teutonic Knightsto Poland. Turnbull, p. 79 ]
The union was founded by
Nicholas von Renys, John of Pulkow, Frederick of Kitnow, and Nicholas of Kitnow. It was named after its emblem, a lizard("eyne eydechse"), and expanded its influence to other provinces. During the Battle of Grunwaldin 1410, Nicholas von Renys carried the banner of the Culmerland troops for the Teutonic Order. He lowered the banner prematurely, which was considered a signal for retreat that contributed to the defeat of the Knights. The Lizard Union was believed to have been behind messages sent from Kulm advising surrender to the Order's capital of Marienburg, which was unsuccessfully besieged by Poland.
Renys was executed by the Order after the war, causing the remaining members of the Lizard Union to flee to Poland. Turnbull, p. 80 ] The Lizard Union was declared illegalFact|date=February 2007 by
Pope Gregory XIIand Emperor Sigismund and was subsequently dissolved. However, it laid the foundation of the later Prussian Confederation, which requested the annexation of the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knightsinto Poland in 1454.
Military Organization Lizard Union(a namesake during WWII)
* [http://susi.e-technik.uni-ulm.de:8080/Meyers2/seite/bild/werk/meyers/band/5/seite/0369/meyers_b5_s0369.html Eidechsenbund Meyers Lexikon] de icon
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