- Vertical farming
Vertical farming is a proposal to perform
agriculturein urban high-rises. These building have been called "farmscrapers." [ [http://gristmill.grist.org/story/2007/4/23/104245/760#comment5 Urbanism and the environment | Gristmill: The environmental news blog | Grist] ] Using greenhouse methods and recycled resources, these building would produce fruit, vegetables, fish, and livestock year-round in cities. This proposal might allow cities to become self-sufficient.
Dickson Despommier has promoted most recent research. Despommier is a
professorof environmental healthsciences and microbiology at Columbia Universityin New York City, New York.
There have been architectural designs by Andrew Kranis, Columbia University; Gordon Graff [cite news |last= Whyte |first= Murray |title= Is highrise farming in Toronto's future? |pages= |publisher=
Toronto Star|date= 2008-07-27|url= http://www.thestar.com/article/468023 |accessdate= 2008-08-12 ] [http://www.sky-farm.com] [ [http://www.treehugger.com/files/2007/06/sky_farm_propos.php Sky Farm Proposed for Downtown Toronto : TreeHugger] ] , University of Waterloo; Chris Jacobs [ [http://www.chrisjacobs.com Chris Jacobs Vertical Farm] ] [http://verticalfarm.com/images/design/chris/chris_jacobs_dark.jpg] (Creative Director of United Future) of Los Angeles, California; Except Architecture & Consulting [ [http://www.except.nl Except Architecture & Consulting] ] [ [http://www.except.nl/consult/largescaleurbanargriculture/largescaleurbanagriculture1.html Except Consulting Vertical Farms & Large Scale Urban Agriculture article] ] [ [http://www.except.nl/design/shanghaiurbanplan/index.html Except Shanghai Urban Masterplan utilizing Vertical Farms] ] of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and SOA Architects in Paris, France (Augustine Rosenstiehl and Pierre Sartoux).
Mass media attention began with an article by Lisa Chamberlin in "New York" magazine [cite news |last= Chamberlin |first= Lisa |title= Skyfarming |pages= |publisher=
New York Magazine|date= 2007-04-02|url= http://nymag.com/news/features/30020/ ] . Since 2007, articles have appeared in " The New York Times" [cite news |last= Venkataraman |first= Bina |title= Country, the City Version: Farms in the Sky Gain New Interest |pages= |publisher= The New York Times|date= 2008-07-15|url= http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/15/science/15farm.html ] , " U.S. News & World Report" [cite news |last= Shute |first= Nancy |title= Farm of the Future? Someday food may grow in skyscrapers |pages= |publisher= U.S. News & World Report|date= 2007-05-20|url= http://health.usnews.com/usnews/health/articles/070520/28food.b1.htm ] , " Popular Science" [cite news |last= Feldman |first= Amy |title= Skyscraper Farms |pages= |publisher= Popular Science|date= 2007-07-11|url= http://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2007-07/skyscraper-farms ] and " Maxim", among others, as well as radio and television features.
Weather related crop failures cannot occur. Continuous production of food occurs without regard to seasons. Minimal land use can reduce or prevent further
deforestation, desertification, and other consequences of agricultural encroachment on natural biomes. Transportation energy use and pollutionare reduced, because the food is produced near the place it is used. Producing food indoors reduces or eliminates conventional plowing, planting, and harvesting by farm machinery, though automationmight be used. The controlled growing environment and recycling reduces the need for pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers.
hydroponic, aeroponic, and related growing methods allow most crops to be produced indoors in large quantities. Current building designs plan to use energy from wind power, solar power, and incineration of raw sewage and the inedible portion of harvested crops.
Today, over 70% of the liquid fresh water on Earth is used for conventional agriculture. The agriculture often pollutes the water with fertilizers and pesticides. Vertical farms will use less water, and recycle it. The recycling condenses water transpired from the plants. This recycled water is pure, and can be used for crops or drinking. [cite news |last= Pope |first= C.T. |title= Rethinking cities: Moving the farm indoors |pages= |publisher= Circle of Blue |date=
2008-09-12|url= http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/science-tech/rethinking-cities-moving-the-farm-indoors/ ]
Technologies & Devices
Vertical farming relies on the use of various physical methods to become effective. Combining these technologies and devices in an integrated whole is what a Vertical Farm consists of. Various types are proposed and under research. The most common technologies used are:
Solar greenhouse (technical)/ Greenhouse
Professor Despommier argues that the technology to construct vertical farms currently exists. He also believes that the system can be profitable and effective, a claim evidenced by some preliminary research posted on the project's website. Developers and local governments in the following cities have expressed serious interest in establishing a vertical farm:
Inchon( South Korea), Abu Dhabi( United Arab Emirates), and Dongtan( China). [cite web |last= McConnell |first= Kathryn |title= Vertical Farms Grow Food by Growing Up, Not Out |work= Bureau of International Information Programs|publisher= United States Department of State|date= 2008-07-01|url= http://www.america.gov/st/foraid-english/2008/July/20080630192325AKllennoCcM0.5946161.html |doi= |accessdate= 2008-08-12 ]
Indoor plant cultivation
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Terrace (agriculture), Terrace (gardening), and Terrace (building)
Development Supported Agriculture
* [http://www.verticalfarm.com The Vertical Farm Project]
* [http://www.verticalfarm.com/Designs.aspx Various Vertical Farm Designs]
* [http://www.except.nl/consult/largescaleurbanargriculture/largescaleurbanagriculture1.html Vertical Farms & Large Scale Urban Agriculture Research - Except Consulting]
* [http://www.machinefilms.com/Reels/FT_hd.mov Animation of large Vertical Farm in city - Chris Jacobs and Dean Fowler]
* [http://money.cnn.com/2007/09/10/technology/farming_vertical.biz2/index.htm?postversion=2007091105 CNN Vertical Farming] ; [http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/international/2007/11/19/intv.eco.sol.vertical.farming.cnn?iref=videosearch Sky Farming Video]
* [http://www.columbiatribune.com/2005/Aug/20050830Busi010.asp "Professor sees vertical farms on horizon," Columbia Tribune, 8/30/2005, accessed 9/3/06]
* [http://www.eco-tower.fr "La Tour Vivante de l'agence soa architectes" (French and English)]
* [http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-vertical-farm.htm wiseGEEK-"What is a Vertical Farm?"]
* [http://gristmill.grist.org/story/2007/4/23/104245/760#comment5 "Comment on article "Urbanism and the environment"] - Gar Lipow coins the term "farmscraper" 4/23/2007
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6752795.stm "Vertical farming in the big Apple"] BBC article from June 19, 2007
* [http://www.chrisjacobs.com/ Chris Jacobs Vertical Farm Blog]
* [http://science.howstuffworks.com/vertical-farming.htm Howstuffworks - "Will there be farms in New York City's skyscrapers?"]
* [http://www.treehugger.com/files/2007/06/sky_farm_propos.php "Sky Farm Proposed for Downtown Toronto"]
* [http://torontoist.com/2007/06/is_toronto_a_fu.php "Grow Up"] Pullquote: "If designer Gordon Graff gets his way, a new skyscraper in Toronto's Theatre District could be the unlikely source of food for 35,000 residents."
* [http://makesomethinghappen.net/2008/07/24/263/ Crowd-Sourcing a Vertical Farm in NYC]
* [http://vision4ourcities.wordpress.com/ The Hanging Gardens of Babylon] An informative Blog about Green Roofs, Rooftop Gardens, Vertical Gardens, Interior Gardens and all solutions to bring Green back into the cities of the 21st century.
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