- Florian Leopold Gassmann
Florian Leopold Gassmann (born in
Most, 3 May 1729– died in Vienna, 21 January 1774) was a German-speaking Bohemian operacomposer of the transitional period between the baroque and classical eras. He was one of the principal composers of opera buffaimmediately before Mozart.
From 1757 until 1762, he wrote an opera every year for the
carnivalseason in Venice, and was also made choirmaster in the girls’ conservatory in Venice in 1757. Many of the librettos he set were by the great Venetian playwright Carlo Goldoni.
In 1763 he was called to be court
balletcomposer in Vienna, where he was held in great affection by Emperor Joseph II. In 1764, Gassmann became chamber composer to the Emperor, and in 1772 court conductor.
In 1766, Gassmann met the young
Antonio Salieriin Venice, who he invited to return to Vienna with him, and who, based on Johann Joseph Fux’s textbook "Gradus ad Passarnum", he taught composition. Salieri remained in Vienna, and succeeded Gassman as chamber composer to the Emperor upon the latter's death in 1774. Another Italian composer, Giuseppe Bono, succeeded him as court conductor.
In 1771, Gassman founded the "Tonkünstlersozietät" (Society of Musical Artists), which organised the first musical events for the general public in Vienna. This social institution was particularly concerned with widows and orphans of its deceased members. He composed his
oratorio"La Betulia liberata" because of the founding of this society.
In 1774 Gassman died of long-term consequences of an accident he had suffered while on his final visit to Italy.
Gassmann's two daughters,
Anna Fuxand Therese Rosenbaum, were both famous singers trained by Salieri; the younger, Therese, made a particular name for herself as a Mozart interpreter.
* Stage works
**Merope, Venice (1757)
**Issipile, Venice (1758)
**Gli uccellatori, Venice (1759)
Filosofia ed amore, Venice (1760)
**Ezio, Florence (1761) revised Rome (1770)
**Catone in Utica, Venice (1761)
**Un pazzo ne fà cento, Venice (1762)
**L'Olimpiade, Vienna (1764)
**Il trionfo d'amore, Vienna (1765)
**Achille in Sciro, Venice (1766)
**Il viaggatore ridicolo, Vienna (1767)
**Amore, e Psiche, Vienna (1767)
L'amore artigiano, Vienna (1767)
La notte critica, Vienna (1768)
L'opera seria, Vienna (1769)
La contessina, Mährisch-Neustadt (1770)
**Il filosofo innamorato, Vienna (1771)
**Le pescatrici, Vienna (1771)
I rovinati, Vienna (1772)
**La casa di campagna, Vienna (1773)
** Amore, e venere (1768)
** L’amor timido
**La Betulia Liberata (1772)
** Approximately 50 symphonies
** Six string quartets
** Two trios for flute, violin and viola
*Kosman, Joshua: "Gassmann, Florian Leopold" in 'The
New Grove Dictionary of Opera', ed. Stanley Sadie (London, 1992) ISBN 0-333-73432-7
* [http://www.mumost.cz/mesto/osobnosti/gassmann.htm Detailed biography, painting] (in Czech)
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